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Annual plant

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Evolutionary and Ecological Aspects of Annual Plants:
– Prevailing assumption: annuals evolved from perennials
– Recent research: perennials evolved from annual ancestors
– Transition rates: annual to perennial life cycle twice as fast
– Life-history theory: favors annuals with higher adult mortality
– Global trend: annual plant prevalence increasing with human footprint

Traits and Implications of Annual Plants:
– Higher growth rate in annuals
– More resources allocated to seeds by annuals
– Annuals allocate fewer resources to roots
– Annuals maintain higher soil seed bank persistence
– Annual plants contribute significantly to global food consumption

Molecular Genetics and Annual Plants:
– Inactivation of two genes in one species converts it to perennial
– SOC1 and FUL genes control flowering time in plants
– Deactivation of genes leads to phenotypes of perennial plants
– Study conducted on Arabidopsis thaliana
– Switch results in wood formation typical of perennials

Importance of Planting Perennials:
– Perennials have deep root systems that help prevent soil erosion
– They require less water compared to annual plants
– Planting perennials can improve soil health by increasing organic matter content
– Perennials provide habitats for beneficial insects and wildlife
– Growing perennials can contribute to biodiversity conservation efforts

Environmental Impact and Production of Annual vs. Perennial Grains:
– Annual grain production often leads to soil degradation due to frequent tilling
– Perennial grain production requires less fertilizer input, reducing environmental pollution
– Perennial grains help sequester carbon in the soil, aiding in climate change mitigation
– Growing perennials can enhance water retention in the soil, reducing the risk of drought
– Perennial crops contribute to sustainable agriculture practices

Annual plant (Wikipedia)

An annual plant is a plant that completes its life cycle, from germination to the production of seeds, within one growing season, and then dies. Globally, only 6% of all plant species and 15% of herbaceous plants (excluding trees and shrubs) are annuals. The annual life cycle has independently emerged in over 120 different plant families throughout the entire angiosperm phylogeny.

Peas are an annual plant.
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