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Bidens – Wikipedia

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**1. Distribution and Habitat:**
– Bidens genus comprises approximately 230 species found globally.
– Species are present in the Americas, Africa, Polynesia, Europe, and Asia.
– Primarily located in tropical and warm temperate regions.
– Well-distributed in various habitats, including oceanic islands.

**2. Phylogeny, Taxonomy, and Diversity:**
– Bidens taxonomy and systematics are intricate and disorganized.
– The genus is closely related to Coreopsis, with both being challenging to differentiate.
– Bidens and Coreopsis are not monophyletic groups.

**3. Propagation and Conservation:**
– Bidens are zoochorous plants with seeds dispersing by sticking to clothing, fur, or feathers.
– Some species face extinction threats.
– Oceanic island taxa have evolved features aiding wind dispersal.

**4. Human Use and Interactions:**
– Nodding and hairy beggarticks are honey plants.
– Some Bidens species serve as food sources for caterpillars.
– Bidens leaves are utilized by Native Hawaiians to make a special tea.
– Bidens play roles in pollination and plant-pathogen interactions.

**5. Species and Research Studies:**
– A comprehensive list of Bidens species.
– Various research studies on Bidens conducted by different researchers and institutions.
– Publications, references, journals, articles, and government resources related to Bidens.

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