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Carya tomentosa – Wikipedia

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**Distribution and Habitat**:
– Native range includes Massachusetts, New York, southern Ontario, northern Illinois, southeastern Iowa, Missouri, eastern Kansas, eastern Texas, and northern Florida.
– Most abundant in Virginia, North Carolina, Florida, lower Mississippi Valley, lower Ohio River Basin, Missouri, and Arkansas.
– Not found in Michigan, New Hampshire, and Vermont.
– Thrives in a humid climate with mean annual precipitation ranging from 890mm to 2,030mm.
– Annual temperatures range from 10 to 21°C, with a growing season lasting 160 to 320 days.
– Found on drier soils of ridges and hillsides in the north, growing best on deep, fertile soils.
– Grows on ultisols, inceptisols, and mollisols on slopes of 25% or less, including fine loams, clays, and quartz sands.
– Associated with eastern oak-hickory forest and beech-maple forest.

**Reproduction and Characteristics**:
– Monoecious tree with male and female flowers on the same tree.
– Male flowers are catkins about 10 to 13cm long, while female flowers appear in short spikes on peduncles.
– Flowers bloom in spring from April to May, with fruits ripening in September and October.
– Long-lived species, sometimes reaching 500 years, known by various names like mockernut hickory, white hickory, and hognut.
Wood is valued for strength, hardness, and flexibility, used in various products.
– Leaves turn yellow in autumn.

**Ecology and Uses**:
– Preferred mast for wildlife including squirrels, black bears, foxes, rabbits, and white-tailed deer.
– Consumed by many species of birds and animals.
– Essential for high-grade hickory products in industries.
– Utilized for lumber, pulpwood, charcoal, fuelwood, tool handles, and furniture.
– Valued for high shock resistance and various applications.

**Genetics and Hybridization**:
– Mockernut hickory is a 64-chromosome species, making it rare to cross with 32-chromosome species like pecan or shellbark hickory.
– Natural hybridization occurs among North American Carya species, with potential effects on nut production.
– Efforts ongoing to map the genome of pecan, potentially expanding to cover other hickory species.
– Genetic variability allows successful crosses within the genus.

**Research and Publications**:
– Various research publications provide insights into mockernut hickory, including studies on fungus enemies, reproduction, seed yields, and stock.
– Silvical characteristics, forest service reports, tree weight tables, diseases, and hybridization studies contribute to a comprehensive understanding of mockernut hickory.

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