**History of Floral Formulae:**

– Floral formulae originated in the early 19th century by Cassel and Martius.

– Grisebach introduced a 4-integer series to represent floral parts.

– Sachs utilized floral formulae with diagrams in 1873.

– Eichler incorporated floral diagrams in his work.

– Contemporary books like ‘Plant Systematics’ by Judd et al. and Simpson (2010) include floral formulae.

**Sexuality Symbols and Representation:**

– Symbols like ☿, ⚥, ♂, and ♀ are used to denote hermaphrodite, male, and female flowers.

– Prenner et al. recommend using ♀ and ♂ only for separate sexuality.

– Ronse De Craene uses words instead of symbols for sexuality.

– Judd et al. include the fruit type at the end of floral formulas.

– Ovary position can be indicated by alternating the G label.

**Examples and Variability in Floral Formulae:**

– Example formulas of species like Canna indica and Tamarindus indica with detailed descriptions of floral parts.

– Different formulas may exist for individual species and genera.

– Haloragaceae floral formula with specific organ counts.

– Formulas can vary in complexity and representation.

**Related Concepts and Additional Information:**

– Floral diagram is closely related to the concept of floral formulae.

– Bracts and bracteoles may be included in the floral formula.

– Various historical references on the development and usage of floral formulae.

– Updates proposed by Prenner et al. for taxonomic descriptions.

– Ronse De Craene’s work on floral diagrams and flower morphology.

**References and Resources:**

– Books by authors like Judd, Sattler, and Simpson discussing plant systematics.

– Subrahmanyam’s book ‘Modern Plant Taxonomy’ in the bibliography.

– Websites like Kvetné vzorce dedicated to floral formulae.

– Tools like Floral Diagram Generator to create floral diagrams from floral formulae.

– Specific references to symbols and floral formulae in academic works.

A **floral formula** is a notation for representing the structure of particular types of flowers. Such notations use numbers, letters and various symbols to convey significant information in a compact form. They may represent the floral form of a particular species, or may be generalized to characterize higher taxa, usually giving ranges of numbers of organs. Floral formulae are one of the two ways of describing flower structure developed during the 19th century, the other being floral diagrams. The format of floral formulae differs according to the tastes of particular authors and periods, yet they tend to convey the same information.

✶ K5 [C(5) A5] G(5) | |

Floral formula of Anagallis arvensis. Polysymmetric flower. The perianth consists of 5 free sepals and 5 joined petals, which are fused with androecium. Flower is bisexual, it contains 5 stamens, pistil is fused of five carpels, ovary is superior. |

A floral formula is often used along with a floral diagram.