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Fusarium – Wikipedia

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Taxonomy and Subdivision:
Genus Fusarium is complex with up to 1,000 identified species.
– Approaches to speciation vary between wide and narrow concepts.
– Phylogenetic studies have identified seven major clades within the genus.
– Proposed concepts include maintaining the genus as it stands or creating seven new genera.
– Various schemes subdivide the genus into subgenera and sections, with poor correlation between sections and phylogenetic clades.
– Economically important plant pathogenic species include Fusarium graminearum and F. oxysporum f.sp. cubense.

Human Infections:
– Fusarial infections may occur in nails and cornea.
– Infections can penetrate the entire body in weakened immune systems.
– Fusarium solani complex and other species can cause disseminated infections.
– Research includes isolation mediums like peptone PCNB agar and Komadas medium for F. oxysporum.
– Identification methods include vegetative compatibility group analysis and complex assays for some strains.

Human Food and Health:
– Fusarium venenatum and flavolapis are produced for human consumption.
– Fusarium products have caused food allergies similar to peanut allergies.
– Consumers with mold sensitivities should be cautious.
– Fusarium has been used in dishes at Le Bernardin.
– Natures Fynd’s Fy nutritional fungi protein has received FDA approval.

Biological Warfare and Pest Threats:
– Contaminated wheat flour caused mass casualties in the Soviet Union.
– Trichothecene T-2 mycotoxin was weaponized.
– Fusarium contamination was reported in Israeli soldiers in Gaza in 2023.
– Fusarium threatens ancient cave paintings in Lascaux.
– Air conditioning systems have caused outbreaks of the fungus.

Microbiota and Miscellaneous:
– Fusarium may be part of the microbiota, causing rare cases of Fusariosis.
– Cases of necrotic ulceration of the gingiva have been reported.
– Controversies include mycoherbicide research, yellow rain allegations, and uncommon opportunistic fungal infections.
– Various research studies and applications related to Fusarium identification, mycotoxins, and fungal proteins are ongoing.

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