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Nelumbo – Wikipedia

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**1. Nelumbo Characteristics and Ultrahydrophobicity:**
– Nelumbo leaves exhibit ultrahydrophobicity
– Lotus effect involves high water contact angle and low roll-off angle
– Papillae layer and waxy tubules reduce water contact area
– Ultrahydrophobicity aids gas exchange through stomata
– Ultrahydrophobicity allows water droplets to roll off easily
– Nelumbo generates heat using the AOX pathway
– Heat production attracts pollinators
– Heat production is restricted to specific flower parts
– Thermogenesis transitions to photosynthesis after anthesis

**2. Taxonomy and Similar Species:**
– Nelumbo was traditionally classified under Nymphaeaceae
– Disagreement over family placement
– Modern classification places Nelumbo in Nelumbonaceae
– APG IV system recognizes Nelumbonaceae in Proteales order
– Fossil evidence indicates recent divergence of extant species
– Nelumbo leaves are peltate, fully circular
– Nymphaea has a characteristic notch in lily pads
– Nelumbo seedpod is distinctive

**3. Nelumbo Species and Uses:**
– Nelumbo lutea is the American lotus
– Nelumbo nucifera is the sacred or Indian lotus
– Nelumbo nucifera is the national flower of India and Vietnam
– Nelumbo nucifera roots and seeds are used in cooking
– Fossil species include Nelumbo aureavallis, Nelumbo changchangensis, and Nelumbo minima
– Entire plant can be eaten raw or cooked
– Underwater portion is high in starch
– Fleshy parts can be baked or boiled
– Young leaves can be boiled
– Seeds are palatable and can be eaten raw or ground into flour

**4. Cultural Significance:**
– Sacred in Hinduism and Buddhism
– Floral emblem of India and Vietnam

**5. Additional Research and Resources:**
– Study on the chloroplast genome of Nelumbo nucifera
– Significance of Nelumbo nucifera in different cultures
– Edible uses and nutritional value of lotus plant
– Environmental benefits of lotus cultivation
– Potential medicinal properties of Nelumbo nucifera
– References to Oxford English Dictionary, superhydrophobic and superoleophobic properties in nature, lotus silk production, and studies on lotus leaf properties and thermogenesis

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