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Nut (fruit)

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**Botanical Classification:**

– A nut is a fruit with a woody pericarp.
– Walnuts and hickories have fruits that are difficult to classify.
– In common use, a tree nut refers to any nut coming from a tree.
– A nutlet specifically refers to a pyrena or pyrene.
– Dry drupes have an outer fleshy part surrounding a single pit or stone.
– Some nuts are not nuts in a botanical sense.

**Production Statistics:**

– Coconuts had a world production of 62.5 million tonnes in 2019.
– Peanuts had a production of 48.8 million tonnes in 2019.
– Walnuts had a production of 4.5 million tonnes in 2019.
– Cashews had a production of 4.0 million tonnes in 2019.
– Almonds had a production of 3.5 million tonnes in 2019.
– Brazil nuts had a global production of 78,000 tonnes in 2019.
– Chestnuts had a world production of 2.4 million tonnes in 2019.
– Hazelnuts had a world production of 1.1 million tonnes in 2019.

**Culinary Nuts:**

– Almonds originated in Iran.
– Brazil nuts are native to tropical South America.
– Cashews originated in northeastern Brazil.
– Chestnuts are native to temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere.
– Coconuts are grown throughout the tropics.

**Nutrition and Constituents:**

– Nuts are nutrient-dense and contain essential fatty acids.
– They have low water and carbohydrate content but high levels of fats, protein, minerals, and vitamins.
– Nuts are rich in calories, unsaturated fats, vitamins, and amino acids.
– They contain essential minerals like magnesium, phosphorus, and potassium.
– Different nuts have varying nutrient compositions.
– Nuts provide essential nutrients like vitamin E and B.
– Some nuts are good sources of fiber and folate.

**Toxicity and Health Benefits:**

– Nuts are common food allergens.
– Reactions can range from mild to severe, including anaphylaxis.
Histamine release in response to nuts can cause skin and other reactions.
– Individuals with allergies should avoid nuts.
– Regular consumption of nuts may reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases.
– Nuts are beneficial for weight control and lowering body weight.
– Studies suggest that nut consumption may lower the risk of cardiovascular diseases and cancer.
– Consuming nuts or peanut butter daily may have protective effects on health.

Nut (fruit) (Wikipedia)

A nut is a fruit consisting of a hard or tough nutshell protecting a kernel which is usually edible. In general usage and in a culinary sense, a wide variety of dry seeds are called nuts, but in a botanical context "nut" implies that the shell does not open to release the seed (indehiscent).

Chestnuts are both botanical and culinary nuts.
Some common "culinary nuts": hazelnuts, which are also botanical nuts; Brazil nuts, which are not botanical nuts, but rather the seeds of a capsule; and walnuts, pecans, and almonds (which are not botanical nuts, but rather the seeds of drupes)

Most seeds come from fruits that naturally free themselves from the shell, but this is not the case in nuts such as hazelnuts, chestnuts, and acorns, which have hard shell walls and originate from a compound ovary. The general and original usage of the term is less restrictive, and many nuts (in the culinary sense), such as almonds, pistachios, and Brazil nuts, are not nuts in a botanical sense. Common usage of the term often refers to any hard-walled, edible kernel as a nut. Nuts are an energy-dense and nutrient-rich food source.

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