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Organ printing

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**History and Development of Organ Printing**:
– Stereolithography invented in 1984, leading to early 3D printing.
– Bioprinting concept demonstrated in 1988 with cell deposition.
– First artificial organ made using bioprinting was a bladder in 1999.
– Nanocomposites in the 1990s improved durability of 3D printed objects.
Organ printing in developmental stages with successful transplantation of a 3D bioprinted bladder.
– Potential to customize organs for recipients and decrease demand for animal testing.

**3D Printing Techniques for Organ Printing**:
– Various techniques in 3D printing cater to different organ production needs.
– Benefits include creating constructs resembling natural organ microstructure.
– Efficient rapid manufacturing techniques applicable in artificial organ synthesis.
– Sacrificial Writing into Functional Tissue (SWIFT) for mimicking natural microstructure effectively.
– Stereolithographic (SLA) 3D bioprinting, Drop-Based Bioprinting, Extrusion bioprinting, Fused deposition modeling, and Selective laser sintering techniques.

**Materials and Cell Sources for Organ Printing**:
– Printing materials must be biocompatible, biodegradable, and customizable.
– Natural polymers like alginate, fibrin, chitosan, collagen, and gelatin are commonly used.
– Cell sources include patient-derived cells, adult stem cells, and induced pluripotent cells.
– Some tissues can self-organize into differentiated structures.
– Importance of materials and cell sources in successful organ printing.

**Applications and Innovations in Organ Printing**:
– Organ donation statistics highlighting the need for organ transplants.
Organ printing could eliminate organ shortages and compatibility issues.
– Applications in physician and surgical training, pharmaceutical research, and organ-on-a-chip technology.
– Impact on pharmaceutical research, drug delivery devices, and personalized medicine.
– Potential for high-throughput drug toxicity studies using organs-on-chips.

**Challenges, Ethical Considerations, and Future Implications**:
– Challenges in recreating vasculature, designing detailed organs, and finding sustainable cell sources.
– Ethical considerations include social availability, wealth stratification, and autologous vs. allogenic sources.
– Long-term impacts of organ printing yet to be determined.
– Hope to decrease organ transplant shortage and customize organs for recipients.
– Designing clinical trials for long-term viability and biocompatibility.

Organ printing (Wikipedia)

Organ printing utilizes techniques similar to conventional 3D printing where a computer model is fed into a printer that lays down successive layers of plastics or wax until a 3D object is produced. In the case of organ printing, the material being used by the printer is a biocompatible plastic. The biocompatible plastic forms a scaffold that acts as the skeleton for the organ that is being printed. As the plastic is being laid down, it is also seeded with human cells from the patient's organ that is being printed for. After printing, the organ is transferred to an incubation chamber to give the cells time to grow. After a sufficient amount of time, the organ is implanted into the patient.

Total artificial heart developed at ETH Zurich
A CELLINK 3D Bioprinter

To many researchers the ultimate goal of organ printing is to create organs that can be fully integrated into the human body. Successful organ printing has the potential to impact several industries, notably artificial organs organ transplants, pharmaceutical research, and the training of physicians and surgeons.

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