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**Historical Evolution of Pies**:
– The word ‘pie’ first appeared in 1303 in the expense accounts of the Bolton Priory in Yorkshire.
– Early pies were flat, round crusty cakes called galettes with honey inside.
– A recipe for chicken pie dates back to before 2000 BC in Sumer.
Pie pastry is believed to have originated in Ancient Greece.
– Medieval pies were usually savory meat pies with beef, lamb, wild duck, and more.
– Pies contained meat or fish until the 15th century, then custard and fruit pie recipes emerged.
– Pies became universally esteemed during the 19th century.

**Cultural and Regional Variations**:
– Meat pies are popular in the UK, Australia, South Africa, and New Zealand.
– Pot pies with meat, gravy, and vegetables are a common American dish.
Fruit pies served with ice cream are known as pie à la mode.
– Different immigrant groups introduced unique pie-making techniques.
Apple pies can be made with various apple cultivars.
– The English steak and kidney pie was invented in 1975.

**In Literature and Popular Culture**:
– Jane Austen’s novels mention cold pigeon pies and venison pasties.
– Pies are described in an old-fashioned Christmas spread in ‘Persuasion.’
– American as apple pie is a popular idiom in the US.
– Expressions like ‘eat humble pie’ and ‘pie-eyed’ have pie references.
Pie throwing in films and politics has become a notable act.

**American Pie History**:
– Pilgrim fathers and settlers brought English-style meat pie recipes to America.
– Pioneers used fillers like vinegar-soaked potatoes and river turtle meat in pies.
– Immigrants brought new styles of pie-making, like aromatic and less sweet pies.
Sugar availability from Caribbean colonies led to more sweet pie varieties.
– Pumpkins were plentiful in the northern states, leading to popular pumpkin pies.

**Pie Making Techniques and Ingredients**:
– The Romans made a plain pastry to cover meats and fowls to keep in the juices.
– Wealthy Romans combined various meats like mussels and seafood in their pies.
Recipe books featured sweet and unsweetened pie alternatives in the 18th century.
– Colonial cooks used shallow pans to create regional variations of pies.
– Sweet pies developed with waves of immigrants in the late 1700s.

Pie (Wikipedia)

A pie is a baked dish which is usually made of a pastry dough casing that contains a filling of various sweet or savoury ingredients. Sweet pies may be filled with fruit (as in an apple pie), nuts (pecan pie), fruit preserves (jam tart), brown sugar (sugar pie), sweetened vegetables (rhubarb pie), or with thicker fillings based on eggs and dairy (as in custard pie and cream pie). Savoury pies may be filled with meat (as in a steak pie or a Jamaican patty), eggs and cheese (such as quiches or British flans) or a mixture of meat and vegetables (pot pie).

A pear pie
Main ingredientsPie shell
VariationsSweet pies, savoury pies

Pies are defined by their crusts. A filled pie (also single-crust or bottom-crust), has pastry lining the baking dish, and the filling is placed on top of the pastry but left open. A top-crust pie has the filling in the bottom of the dish and is covered with a pastry or other covering before baking. A two-crust pie has the filling completely enclosed in the pastry shell. Shortcrust pastry is a typical kind of pastry used for pie crusts, but many things can be used, including baking powder biscuits, mashed potatoes, and crumbs.

Pies can be a variety of sizes, ranging from bite-size to those designed for multiple servings.

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