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Plant anatomy

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**Historical Development of Plant Anatomy:**
– Gaspard Bauhin introduced binomial nomenclature.
– Marcello Malpighi and Nehemiah Grew are founders of plant anatomy.
– Carl Linnaeus established taxonomy based on structure.
– Charles-François Brisseau de Mirbel initiated plant cytology science.
– Augustin Pyrame de Candolle defined structural criteria for plant genera.
– Johann Jacob Paul Moldenhawer described microscopic plant tissues.
– Franz Meyen published the first comprehensive review of plant anatomy.
– Matthias Jakob Schleiden confirmed plant cell composition.
– Eduard Strasburger described the mitotic process in plant cells.
– Gottlieb Haberlandt classified plant tissue based on function.

**Contributions to Plant Anatomy:**
– Dunkinfield Henry Scott and William Crawford Williamson studied fossilized plant structures.
– Edward Charles Jeffrey applied evolutionary theory to plant anatomy.
– Agnes Arber advanced comparative plant anatomy.
– Katherine Esau published the definitive textbook on plant structure.
– Katherine Esau authored ‘Anatomy of Seed Plants’.

**Evolution of Plant Anatomy Studies:**
– Raven, P. H.; Evert, R. F., and Eichhorn, S. E.
– Hagemann, Wolfgang.
– Evert, Ray Franklin and Esau, Katherine.
– Howell, Stephen Herbert.
– Craig, Richard & Vassilyev, Andrey.

**Plant Cell Structure:**
– Cells are the basic structural and functional units.
– Types include parenchyma, collenchyma, and sclerenchyma.
– Cell walls provide support and protection.
– Chloroplasts are responsible for photosynthesis.
– Vacuoles store water and nutrients.

**Plant Tissues and Organ Structure:**
– Meristematic tissue is responsible for growth.
– Dermal tissue forms the outer protective covering.
Vascular tissue transports water and nutrients.
Ground tissue provides support and storage.
– Epidermis prevents water loss.
Root Structure: Roots anchor the plant and absorb water.
Root hairs increase surface area for absorption.
Root cap protects the growing tip.
– Xylem transports water and minerals.
– Phloem transports sugars.
– Stem Anatomy: Stems provide support and transport materials.
– Node is the region where leaves are attached.
– Internode is the stem region between nodes.
– Cambium is responsible for secondary growth.
– Bark protects the stem.
Leaf Structure: Leaves are the main sites of photosynthesis.
– Cuticle reduces water loss.
– Palisade mesophyll contains chloroplasts.
– Stomata regulate gas exchange.
– Veins transport water and sugars.

Plant anatomy (Wikipedia)

Plant anatomy or phytotomy is the general term for the study of the internal structure of plants. Originally, it included plant morphology, the description of the physical form and external structure of plants, but since the mid-20th century, plant anatomy has been considered a separate field referring only to internal plant structure. Plant anatomy is now frequently investigated at the cellular level, and often involves the sectioning of tissues and microscopy.

Chloroplasts in leaf cells of the moss Mnium stellare
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