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Plant pathology

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**Plant Pathogenicity:**
Plant pathogens include fungi, oomycetes, bacteria, viruses, viroids, phytoplasmas, protozoa, nematodes, and parasitic plants.
– Virulence in plant pathogens relies on hydrolases and enzymes that degrade the cell wall, mainly acting on pectins.
– Pathogens utilize specific pathogenicity factors like cell wall-degrading enzymes, toxins, effector proteins, phytohormones, and exopolysaccharides.
– Cell wall-degrading enzymes break down plant cell walls to access nutrients, including esterases, glycosyl hydrolases, lyases, and oxidoreductases.

**Physiological Plant Disorders:**
– Abiotic disorders like drought, frost, flooding, nutrient deficiency, windburn, and wildfires can be mistaken for pathogen-induced disorders.
– Natural processes and environmental factors like hail, poor drainage, mineral salt deposition, and storms contribute to physiological plant disorders.

– Epidemiology studies factors influencing the outbreak and spread of infectious plant diseases.
– The disease triangle concept highlights the host plant, pathogen, and environment as essential factors for plant diseases.
– Modification of any element in the disease triangle can help control plant diseases.

**Disease Resistance:**
Plant disease resistance involves preventing and terminating infections from pathogens.
Plant structures like the cuticular layer, cell walls, and stomata guard cells help prevent pathogen entry.
Plant receptors trigger signaling pathways to combat foreign molecules.
– Genetic breeding can manipulate host plant genes to enhance disease resistance.

**Management and Detection:**
– Molecular pathology assays like PCR, RT-PCR, and LAMP aid in plant pathogen detection.
– Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay is a widely used method for plant pathogen detection.
Crop rotation is a traditional method to prevent parasitic populations from establishing.
– Historical evolution of plant pathology from antiquity to modern scientific advancements.

Plant pathology (Wikipedia)

Plant pathology or phytopathology is the scientific study of plant diseases caused by pathogens (infectious organisms) and environmental conditions (physiological factors). Plant pathology involves the study of pathogen identification, disease etiology, disease cycles, economic impact, plant disease epidemiology, plant disease resistance, how plant diseases affect humans and animals, pathosystem genetics, and management of plant diseases.

Life cycle of the black rot pathogen, the gram negative bacterium Xanthomonas campestris pathovar campestris
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