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Plant reproduction

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**Asexual Reproduction in Plants:**
– Involves budding, fragmentation, spore formation, regeneration, and vegetative propagation.
– Offspring inherit characteristics from one parent.
– Types in plants include vegetative reproduction and agamospermy.
– Apomixis can replace sexual reproduction in some plants.
Vegetative reproduction aids in plant survival and expansion.

**Structures for Asexual Reproduction:**
– Rhizomes, prostrate aerial stems like runners and stolons, underground tubers, and gemmae are important structures.
– Gemmae detach from plants to form new clonal individuals.
– Gemmae are common in liverworts, mosses, and some higher plants.

**Methods and Usage of Asexual Reproduction:**
– Common asexual methods include cutting, grafting, budding, and layering.
Fruit tree propagation often involves budding or grafting.
– Cuttings are branches rooted to form genetically identical plants.
– Grafting joins stems or buds onto different stems for propagation.
– Vegetatively propagated plants are important tools in plant research.

**Sexual Reproduction in Plants:**
– Involves meiosis and fertilization processes.
– Plants undergo alternation of generations with gametophyte and sporophyte phases.
Gametophyte produces male and female gametes through mitosis.
– Fusion of gametes produces a diploid zygote that develops into a sporophyte.
Sporophyte produces spores through meiosis for reproduction.

**Reproductive Strategies in Flowering Plants:**
– Flowering plants reproduce through sexual and asexual means.
– Reproductive organs are contained in flowers.
Pollination occurs through the transfer of pollen to female stigmas.
– Fertilization leads to the development of zygote, endosperm, and seed within a fruit.
– Plants attract pollinators through various methods like color, scent, and nectar glands.

Plant reproduction (Wikipedia)

Plant reproduction is the production of new offspring in plants, which can be accomplished by sexual or asexual reproduction. Sexual reproduction produces offspring by the fusion of gametes, resulting in offspring genetically different from either parent. Asexual reproduction produces new individuals without the fusion of gametes, resulting in clonal plants that are genetically identical to the parent plant and each other, unless mutations occur.

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