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**Etymology and Ancient Names:**
– The name “Sardinia” has pre-Latin roots from Phoenician merchants.
– Ancient Greek authors referred to Sardinia as Sardṓ (Σαρδώ).
– Speculation links the ancient Nuragic Sards with the Sherden, one of the Sea Peoples.
– The name may have a religious connotation related to the mythological hero-god Sardus Pater.
– In classical antiquity, Sardinia was called Ichnusa, Sandaliotis, and Argyrophleps.

**Geography and Climate:**
– Sardinia is the second-largest island in the Mediterranean Sea.
– The coasts of Sardinia are 1,849km long and characterized by high rocky cliffs and deep bays.
– Sardinia’s highest peak is Punta La Marmora at 1,834m.
– Sardinia has a Mediterranean pluviseasonal oceanic climate with mild winters and warm summers on the coasts.
– Sardinia experiences almost rainless summers and wet autumns, winters, and springs.

**Culture and Economy:**
– Sardinia has a rich cultural heritage with vestiges of the Nuragic civilization.
– The island has officially recognized linguistic minorities including Sardinian and Algherese Catalan.
– The region is divided into four provinces and a metropolitan city, with Cagliari as the capital.
– Sardinia’s economy is based on agriculture, tourism, and mining.
– The region benefits from varied landscapes and natural resources.

**History and Prehistory:**
– Sardinia has a long history dating back to ancient times, with the Nuragic civilization flourishing from the 18th century BC.
– The island was ruled by various powers, including the Romans and the Spanish.
– Sardinia was inhabited since the end of the Paleolithic, with waves of immigration shaping its prehistory.
– The Nuragic civilization built fortified round tower-fortresses called nuraghes, unique to Sardinia.
– Various cultures influenced Sardinia, leading to a unique cultural blend.

**Ancient History and Trade:**
– Phoenicians began visiting Sardinia around the 9th century BC, establishing common ports of call.
– Vandals conquered Sardinia in 456, followed by Byzantine rule and the rise of the Judicates.
– Sardinia was an important provider of raw materials like copper and lead, accumulating wealth through trade with various civilizations.
– Archaeological sites like over 7,000 Nuraghes and evidence of trade with Cyprus, Crete, Greece, Spain, and Italy showcase Sardinia’s historical significance.
– The island’s transition to autonomous rule under local noble families and later the Kingdom of Aragon marked significant historical developments.

Sardegna (Wikipedia)

Sardinia (/sɑːrˈdɪniə/ sar-DIN-ee-ə; Italian: Sardegna [sarˈdeɲɲa]; Sardinian: Sardigna [saɾˈdiɲːa]) is the second-largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, after Sicily, and one of the twenty regions of Italy. It is located west of the Italian Peninsula, north of Tunisia and immediately south of the French island of Corsica.

Native names
Autonomous Region of Sardinia
Coat of arms of Sardinia, showing the same pattern as the flag
Anthem: "Su patriotu sardu a sos feudatarios" (Sardinian)
(English: "The Sardinian Patriot to the Lords")
Coordinates: 40°00′N 09°00′E / 40.000°N 9.000°E / 40.000; 9.000
 • TypeConsiglio Regionale
 • PresidentAlessandra Todde (M5S)
 • Total24,090 km2 (9,300 sq mi)
 • Total1,628,384
 • Density68/km2 (180/sq mi)
 • Languages
 • Minority languages
 • Italian97%
 • Total€35.032 billion (2021)
Time zoneUTC+1 (CET)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+2 (CEST)
ISO 3166 codeIT-88
HDI (2021)0.871
very high · 16th of 21

It is one of the five Italian regions with some degree of domestic autonomy being granted by a special statute. Its official name, Autonomous Region of Sardinia, is bilingual in Italian and Sardinian: Regione Autonoma della Sardegna / Regione Autònoma de Sardigna. It is divided into four provinces and a metropolitan city. The capital of the region of Sardinia — and its largest city — is Cagliari.

Sardinia's indigenous language and Algherese Catalan are referred to by both the regional and national law as two of Italy's twelve officially recognized linguistic minorities, albeit gravely endangered, while the regional law provides some measures to recognize and protect the aforementioned as well as the island's other minority languages (the Corsican-influenced Sassarese and Gallurese, and finally Tabarchino Ligurian).

Owing to the variety of Sardinia's ecosystems, which include mountains, woods, plains, stretches of largely uninhabited territory, streams, rocky coasts, and long sandy beaches, Sardinia has been metaphorically described as a micro-continent. In the modern era, many travelers and writers have extolled the beauty of its long-untouched landscapes, which retain vestiges of the Nuragic civilization.

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