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Stone pine

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Stone pine’s prehistoric range included North Africa.
– Current natural range is in the Mediterranean region.
– Found in Southern Europe, including Spain, Italy, and Greece.
– Also present in Western Asia, including Turkey and Syria.
– Naturalized in South Africa and parts of North Africa.

Stone pine is an evergreen tree that can exceed 25 meters in height.
– Bark is thick, red-brown, and deeply fissured.
– Leaves are needle-like, in bundles of two, and can grow up to 30cm long.
– Cones are ovoid, take 3 years to mature, and contain large pine nuts.
– Seeds are animal-dispersed, mainly by the Iberian magpie.

Stone pine is cultivated for its edible pine nuts for over 6,000 years.
– Widely used for ornamental purposes in Rome, Istanbul, and Mediterranean regions.
– Also cultivated for resin, bark extraction, and environmental protection.
– Listed as an invasive species in South Africa.
– Used for bonsai, as Christmas trees, and in large pots.

Stone pine is cultivated for its edible pine nuts, a trade item for millennia.
Pine nuts have been a staple in Mediterranean cuisine.
– The tree has naturalized in the Mediterranean region due to extensive cultivation.
– Considered native beyond its natural range.
Pine nuts are large, pale brown, and have a powdery black coating.

– The western conifer seed beetle is an invasive pest species in Europe.
– It feeds on developing conifer cones, affecting seed development.
– Threatens stone pine populations in Italy by destroying pine nut seeds.
– Pestalotiopsis pini, a fungus, causes shoot blight and stem necrosis in stone pines.
Stone pine orchards and urban areas in Portugal have been affected.

Stone pine (Wikipedia)

The stone pine, botanical name Pinus pinea, also known as the Italian stone pine, Mediterranean stone pine, umbrella pine and parasol pine, is a tree from the pine family (Pinaceae). The tree is native to the Mediterranean region, occurring in Southern Europe and the Levant. The species was introduced into North Africa millennia ago, and is also naturalized in the Canary Islands, South Africa and New South Wales.

Stone pine
Scientific classification Edit this classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Tracheophytes
Clade: Gymnospermae
Division: Pinophyta
Class: Pinopsida
Order: Pinales
Family: Pinaceae
Genus: Pinus
Subgenus: P. subg. Pinus
Section: P. sect. Pinus
Subsection: Pinus subsect. Pinaster
P. pinea
Binomial name
Pinus pinea
Distribution map

Stone pines have been used and cultivated for their edible pine nuts since prehistoric times. They are widespread in horticultural cultivation as ornamental trees, planted in gardens and parks around the world. This plant has gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit.

Pinus pinea is a diagnostic species of the vegetation class Pinetea halepensis.

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