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Theobroma grandiflorum – Wikipedia

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**Botanical Description**:
– Cupuaçu trees typically range from 5–15m in height, with some reaching up to 20m.
– They have brown bark and leaves that are 25–35cm long and 6–10cm across.
– The leaves of Cupuaçu trees change color from pink-tinted to green as they mature.
– Cupuaçu flowers are complex and require pollination from biotic vectors.
– A majority of Cupuaçu trees are self-incompatible, impacting pollination and fruit yields.

**Cultivation and Harvesting**:
– Cupuaçu is propagated through methods like seed planting, grafting, or rooted cuttings.
– Cupuaçu trees are tolerant of infertile soils in the Amazon region.
– Harvesting is done once the fruit naturally falls, with peak ripeness typically around 117 days.
– Brazilians consume Cupuaçu raw or in various sweet dishes.
– Commercial products derived from Cupuaçu include pulp and powder.

**Pests and Diseases**:
– Witches broom disease poses a significant threat to Cupuaçu trees.
– Regular pruning practices can help reduce the severity of diseases affecting Cupuaçu trees.
– Cupuaçu trees can be vulnerable to attacks by the butterfly herbivore lagarta verde.

**Phytochemical Composition**:
– Cupuaçu’s flavor profile is derived from phytochemicals such as tannins, glycosides, and catechins.
– Cupuaçu contains theacrine, caffeine, theobromine, and theophylline in smaller amounts compared to cocoa.

**Cupuaçu Butter**:
– Cupuaçu butter is composed of both saturated and unsaturated fatty acids.
– The main fatty acids found in Cupuaçu butter include stearic acid, oleic acid, palmitic acid, and arachidic acid.

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