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Araucaria araucana – Wikipedia

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– Leaves of A. araucana are thick, tough, and scale-like
– Leaves are triangular, 3–4cm long, 1–3cm broad at the base
– Male cones are oblong and cucumber-shaped
– Female cones are globose, large, 12–20cm in diameter
– Bark of Araucaria araucana may be an adaptation to wildfire

– Native habitat is the lower slopes of the Chilean and Argentine south-central Andes
– Trees can be found in the Chilean Coast Range
– Prefers well-drained, slightly acidic, volcanic soil
– Seedlings struggle to survive unless grown in a canopy gap
– Rarely found with certain competing tree species

**Seed dispersal:**
– A. araucana is a masting species
– Rodents are important consumers and dispersers of its seeds
– Long-haired grass mouse is a key disperser
– Parakeet species also aid in seed dispersal
– Adult trees are highly resistant to large disturbances

– Logging was banned in 1990
– Large fires destroyed thousands of acres of Araucaria forest
– Overgrazing and invasive trees pose threats
– Human harvesting of piñones can hinder new tree growth
– Presence of non-native seed-eating species threatens reproduction

**Cultivation and uses:**
– A popular garden tree with unique branches
– Tolerates temperate climates and abundant rainfall
– Seeds are edible and harvested by indigenous peoples
– Trees can yield thousands of seeds per year
Wood is rarely used due to rarity and protected status

– Nearest extant relative is Araucaria angustifolia from Brazil
– Members of other sections of the genus Araucaria occur in Pacific Islands and Australia
– Include Araucaria cunninghamii, hoop pine, Araucaria heterophylla, Norfolk Island pine, and Araucaria bidwillii, bunya pine
– Recently found Wollemi pine, Wollemia, discovered in southeast Australia
– Common ancestry dates back to when Australia, Antarctica, and South America were linked by land

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