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Black-eyed pea

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**Group 1: History and Cultivation**
– Black-eyed peas originated from West Africa and have been cultivated in China and India since prehistoric times.
– They have been grown in Virginia since the 17th century by African slaves and are popular in Texas.
– Promoted by George Washington Carver for soil nitrogen and nutrition.
– Cultivation tips include sowing in warm soil after frost danger passes, being drought-tolerant, and fixing nitrogen in the soil.
– They attract pollinators and can be a source of honey.

**Group 2: Culinary Uses and Traditions**
– Black-eyed peas are a lucky New Year food in the Southern US, symbolizing prosperity and positive motion.
– They are typically cooked with pork and served with chili sauce or vinegar, often accompanied by cornbread.
– Worldwide culinary uses include dishes like lobia in Egypt, akara and moin-moin in Nigeria and Ghana, and chawli amti in India.
– In Vietnam, they are used in desserts like chè đậu trắng, and in Cyprus, Greece, and Turkey, they are eaten as a salad with olive oil dressing.
– Traditional dishes like Hoppin John in the Southern US and acarajé in Brazil showcase the versatility of black-eyed peas.

**Group 3: Nutrition**
– Black-eyed peas contain 484 kJ (116 kcal) of energy per 100g serving and are an excellent source of folate.
– They are a good source of thiamine, iron, magnesium, manganese, phosphorus, and zinc.
– High in dietary fiber (6.5g per 100g serving) and moderate in vitamins and minerals like Vitamin E, Vitamin K, and calcium.

**Group 4: Uses in South America**
– In Bahia, Brazil, black-eyed peas are used in acarajé, a deep-fried street food.
– In Colombia, they are used to make fritters called buñuelo.
– Guyana and Trinidad and Tobago use black-eyed peas in cook-up rice for New Year’s Eve.
– Black-eyed peas are a staple in South American cuisine and are used in various traditional recipes.

**Group 5: Related Foods and References**
– Legumes similar to black-eyed peas include adzuki bean, chickpea, and lentil.
– Related varieties include Dixie Lee pea and Sea Island red pea.
– Other legumes like organic beans and pulses are part of the same family.
– References from sources like Tropical Forages and historical accounts highlight the cultural and culinary significance of black-eyed peas.

Black-eyed pea (Wikipedia)

The black-eyed pea or black-eyed bean is a legume grown around the world for its medium-sized, edible bean. It is a subspecies of the cowpea, an Old World plant domesticated in Africa, and is sometimes simply called a cowpea.

Black-eyed peas
Fresh black-eyed peas
SpeciesVigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.
Cultivar groupUnguiculata
CultivarBlack-eyed peas
OriginWest Africa
Cultivar group memberslobia

The common commercial variety is called the California Blackeye; it is pale-colored with a prominent black spot. The American South has countless varieties, many of them heirloom, that vary in size from the small lady peas to very large ones. The color of the eye may be black, brown, red, pink, or green. All the peas are green when freshly shelled and brown or buff when dried. A popular variation of the black-eyed pea is the purple hull pea or mud-in-your-eye pea; it is usually green with a prominent purple or pink spot. The currently accepted botanical name for the black-eyed pea is Vigna unguiculata subsp. unguiculata, although previously it was classified in the genus Phaseolus. Vigna unguiculata subsp. dekindtiana is the wild relative and Vigna unguiculata subsp. sesquipedalis is the related asparagus bean. Other beans of somewhat similar appearance, such as the frijol ojo de cabra (goat's-eye bean) of northern Mexico, are sometimes incorrectly called black-eyed peas, and vice versa.

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