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Canna (plant) – Wikipedia

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**Description and Taxonomy**:
– Cannas are large tropical and subtropical herbaceous perennials with rhizomatous rootstock.
– They have broad, flat, alternate leaves that unfurl from a long, narrow roll.
– Flowers are asymmetric, with three sepals and three petals in red, orange, or yellow colors.
– The name ‘Canna’ originates from the Latin word for a cane.
– Canna indica, cultivated by Native Americans, was the first species introduced to Europe.
– Canna is native to tropical and subtropical regions of the New World.

**History and Distribution**:
– Canna indica was one of the earliest domesticated plants in the Americas.
– The plant has a rich history in both tropical America and Europe.
– Cannas are native to tropical and subtropical regions of the New World.
– C. indica has naturalized in many tropical areas worldwide and can be invasive.
– The genus is found from the Southern United States to northern Argentina.

**Ecology and Cultivation**:
– Cannas are relatively pest-free but can be affected by pests like the canna leaf roller moth, slugs, and snails.
– Diseases like canna rust and certain plant viruses can affect cannas.
– Cannas grow best in full sun with moderate water in well-drained soil and are cultivated for their large foliage and vibrant flowers.
– They are versatile plants that can adapt to various growing conditions.
– In arid regions, cannas are often grown in water gardens.

**Uses and Horticultural Varieties**:
– Cannas are used for jewelry, musical instruments, and alcohol fermentation in India.
– They are widely grown in temperate and subtropical regions for their ornamental value.
– Ornamental cultivars have been developed for various landscaping purposes.
– Canna rhizomes are rich in starch used in agriculture for human and livestock consumption.
– Over 2,800 cultivar names have been accumulated, with blurred distinctions among cultivar groups due to interbreeding.

**Propagation Methods**:
– Sexual propagation involves seeds produced through genetic recombination.
– Asexual propagation methods include rhizome division for identical plants and micropropagation for rapid multiplication.
– C. indica is an aggregate species with extreme forms, and mutations are almost always sterile.
– Horticultural cultivars can be separated into smaller rhizomes with growing nodal points.
– Micropropagation uses in vitro division of small pieces in a sterile environment.

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