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Ginkgo – Wikipedia

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**Evolutionary History of Ginkgo**:
– Ginkgo is a living fossil dating back 270 million years.
– Fossils similar to modern Ginkgo appeared in the Middle Jurassic.
– Ginkgo diversified in Laurasia during Jurassic and Early Cretaceous.
– Ginkgo declined in diversity by the Palaeocene.
– Molecular studies show different placements of Ginkgo relative to other plants.
– Ginkgo’s evolutionary relationships are still debated.

**Taxonomic Position and Etymology**:
– Closest relatives of Ginkgo are cycads, sharing motile sperm characteristic.
– Common views are Ginkgo as sister to conifers and gnetophytes or forming a clade with cycads.
– A 2013 study supports the monophyly of Ginkgo and cycads.
– Ginkgo’s position in the plant kingdom is not conclusively determined.
Genus name ‘Ginkgo’ is derived from the Japanese pronunciation ‘gin kyo.’
– The name ‘Ginkgo’ originates from a transcription error.
– The name ‘Ginkgo’ was introduced by Engelbert Kaempfer in the 17th century.
– Carl Linnaeus adopted the spelling ‘Ginkgo’ for the tree’s genus.

**Cultural and Culinary Aspects**:
– In Korea, the seed flesh of Ginkgo is consumed with rice.

**References and Studies**:
– Ginkgo is listed in the World Checklist of Selected Plant Families.
– A 2021 study on gymnosperms discusses gene duplications and phylogenomic conflict.
– Fossil Ginkgoales are overviewed in a 2009 publication.
– The Dictionary of Plant Names provides information on Ginkgo.
– Historical surveys of Ginkgo biloba are based on Japanese and Chinese classical literature.

**Research and Publications**:
– Dana L. Royer, Leo J. Hickey & Scott L. Wing (2003) discuss ecological conservatism in Ginkgo.
– Thomas N. Taylor & Edith L. Taylor (1993) explore the biology and evolution of fossil plants.
– Chung-Shien Wu, Shu-Miaw Chaw & Ya-Yi Huang (2013) present chloroplast phylogenomics showing Ginkgo biloba’s relationship to cycads.
– External links provide additional information on Ginkgo in Wiktionary and Wikipedia.

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