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Juglans regia – Wikipedia

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**Botanical Characteristics**:
– Juglans regia is a large deciduous tree, reaching heights of 25–35 meters with a trunk diameter up to 2 meters.
– Leaves are alternately arranged, odd-pinnate with 5–9 leaflets, the largest being 10–18cm long.
– Male flowers are in drooping catkins, while female flowers ripen into a fruit with a green husk and brown nut.
– The seed is large, with a thin shell, and edible with a rich flavor.

**Distribution and Cultivation**:
– Iran is one of the centers of origin and diversity of Juglans regia.
– Kyrgyzstan has extensive forests of J. regia at altitudes of 1,000–2,000 meters.
– Major walnut producers in 2019 were China, the United States, Iran, Turkey, and Mexico.
– Cultivated extensively for its high-quality fruits, eaten fresh or pressed for oil.

**Uses and Nutrition**:
– Unroasted English walnuts are high in energy and a rich source of carbohydrates, fats, and proteins.
– English walnut kernels are rich in nutrients like dietary minerals, B vitamins, and dietary fiber.
– Contains essential vitamins and minerals, omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids content.
– Provides dietary fiber and fatty acids like palmitic, stearic, oleic, linoleic, and linolenic acids.

**Wood and Other Uses**:
Walnut heartwood is a heavy, hard, open-grained hardwood used for high-end flooring, furniture, and guitars.
Walnut tree has cultural significance in various legends and has inspired cultural works like ballets and music pieces.
– Native American Navajo tribe uses walnut hulls to create brown dye.
– Prized by fine woodworkers for its durability and lustre, featuring unique figures like curly and birds eye.

**Toxicity and Cultural Significance**:
– Walnuts and other tree nuts are food allergen sources and can cause life-threatening allergic reactions.
– The walnut tree has symbolic importance in various cultures and has inspired legends and folk sayings.
– Cultural works inspired by walnut tree legends, with specific traditions in places like Benevento in Italy and Skopelos.
– Legend in Skopelos suggests planting a walnut tree leads to death, with folklore around walnut trees in Flanders, the Netherlands, and Italy.

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