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Liriodendron – Wikipedia

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**Description of Liriodendron**:
– Liriodendron trees have distinctive leaves with four lobes and a notched or straight apex.
Leaf size varies from 8–22cm long and 6–25cm wide.
– Trees can reach 18–60m in height and 60–120cm in diameter.
– Leaves turn yellow or brown in autumn.
– Flowers are 3–10cm in diameter with nine tepals, resembling tulips.

**Distribution of Liriodendron**:
– Taller Liriodendron trees protrude above the canopy of other species like oaks and maples.
– Appalachian cove forests often contain exceptionally tall trees.
– The current tallest tulip tree on record is 191.9ft.
– Maximum circumferences range between 24 and 30ft at breast height.
– The Great Smoky Mountains National Park has a significant population of large tulip trees.

**Fossils of Liriodendron**:
– Liriodendrons have been found as fossils from the late Cretaceous and early Tertiary.
– They are known as Tertiary-age fossils in Europe and beyond their present range in Asia and North America.
– Extinction in Europe was likely due to glaciation and aridity.
– Various extinct species of Liriodendron have been described from the fossil record.
– Liriodendron apparently became extinct in Europe due to climatic changes.

**Cultivation and Use of Liriodendron**:
– Liriodendron trees prefer a temperate climate, sun or part shade, and well-drained soil.
– Propagation is done by seed or grafting, with seed-grown plants taking over eight years to flower.
– The wood of the North American species is fine-grained and stable, used for furniture framing.
– The wood is moderately rot-resistant and has been used in light-craft construction.
– The name canoewood likely refers to the trees’ use in constructing dugout canoes by Native Americans.

**Hybridization of Liriodendron**:
– The North American and Chinese species of Liriodendron have been hybridized.
– Hybrids between the two allopatrically distributed species have been produced.
– The North American species is commonly used horticulturally.
– The Chinese species is increasing in cultivation.
– Leaves on young trees are more deeply lobed and larger compared to mature trees.

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