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Northern root-knot nematode

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– Hosts and symptoms:
– Meloidogyne hapla affects over 550 crops and weeds.
– It feeds on various agricultural and horticultural plants, causing stunting, wilting, and gall formation.
– Symptoms include stunted, wilted, and yellowing plants with decreased yield.
– Severity of symptoms depends on nematode population density and host plant species.
– Different crops show varying symptoms; for example, carrots exhibit severe forking with root galling.

– Disease cycle:
– The life cycle of Meloidogyne hapla includes six stages, from eggs to adulthood.
– Nematodes survive winter as eggs in the soil and start infecting plant roots when soil temperature reaches 18°C.
– Females lay eggs outside the root, completing the life cycle in about 3-4 weeks.
– Life cycle duration ranges from 17 to 57 days depending on the host and soil temperature.
– Eggs may remain in root tissue or survive in the soil for up to a year.

– Management:
– Integrated pest management (IPM) is effective in controlling Meloidogyne hapla.
– Cultural control methods include leaving land fallow, using cover crops toxic to nematodes, and rotating nonhost crops.
– Soil amendments like manure and compost improve soil quality and plant resistance.
– Chemical control involves using fumigants and other chemicals, although many are now restricted.
– Organic control products have limited effectiveness against Northern root-knot nematodes.

– Cultural control:
– Fallowing land, keeping soil bare, and weeding can help expose nematodes to sunlight.
– Cover crops like sudangrass and marigolds produce chemicals toxic to nematodes.
– Rotating nonhost crops reduces nematode populations.
– Adding manure, compost, and organic matter improves soil quality and plant resilience.
– Destroying infected plants after harvest prevents further contamination.

– Chemical control:
– Various chemicals, including fumigants and liquids/granules, have been used to control Meloidogyne hapla.
– Some chemicals are now restricted or banned due to their toxicity.
– Organic Materials Reviews Institute (OMRI) products have limited effectiveness.
– Chemical control disrupts different stages of the nematode disease cycle.
– Effective chemical control methods are crucial in managing nematode infestations.

Northern root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne hapla) is a species of vegetable pathogens which produces tiny galls on around 550 crop and weed species. They invade root tissue after birth. Females are able to lay up to 1,000 eggs at a time in a large egg mass. By surviving harsh winters, they can survive in cold climates (hence, the name, Northern).

Northern root-knot nematode
Scientific classification Edit this classification
Domain: Eukaryota
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Nematoda
Class: Secernentea
Order: Tylenchida
Family: Heteroderidae
Genus: Meloidogyne
M. hapla
Binomial name
Meloidogyne hapla
Chitwood, 1949
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