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Phaseolus vulgaris – Wikipedia

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**Botanical Description and Taxonomy**:
– Bush varieties are 20–60 centimeters tall, while pole varieties are 2–3 meters long.
– Leaves are green or purple, divided into three oval leaflets.
– Flowers are white, pink, or purple, self-pollinating, leading to pods 8–20 cm long.
– Common bean is a member of the legume family Fabaceae.
– Linnaeus classified beans into genus Phaseolus and genus Dolichos.
– All Phaseolus species are native to the Americas.

**Cultivation and Production**:
– Good yield under irrigation is 6 to 8 tons/ha fresh and 1.5 to 2 tons/ha dry seed.
– Beans were cultivated in Peru and Mexico dating back to 2300 BC.
– Major dry bean producers in 2022: India, Brazil, Myanmar, China, United States.
– Many well-known bean cultivars and varieties exist, such as Anasazi, Appaloosa, and Blackturtle beans.

**Nutritional Value and Uses**:
– Green snap beans are low in calories, high in fiber, and rich in vitamins A, C, and K.
– Beans are a good source of minerals like calcium, iron, and potassium.
– Kidney beans are used in chili con carne, pinto beans in the US and Mexico, navy beans in the UK and US.
– Yellow beans like Peruano are used in Mexican cuisine, while white beans like cannellini are abundant in Italy.

**Toxicity and Safety**:
– Phytohaemagglutinin, a lectin, is present in many common bean varieties.
– Cooking beans at boiling point for 10 minutes deactivates toxins.
– White kidney beans contain fewer toxins than red kidney beans.
– Insufficient cooking can lead to poisoning symptoms.
– Canned red kidney beans are safe to consume.

**Culinary Preparation and Other Uses**:
– Dry beans can be stored indefinitely in a cool, dry place.
– Soaking dry beans before cooking shortens cooking time and improves texture.
– Green beans come in various types and are commonly steamed, boiled, stir-fried, or baked.
– Beans have historical uses in practices like trapping bedbugs and divination.
– Phaseolus vulgaris beans are suitable for bio-remediation of heavy-metal-contaminated soils.

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