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Tricholoma equestre – Wikipedia

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– Description:
– Cap ranges from 5–15cm in width, usually yellow with brownish areas.
– Stem is 4–10 cm long, 1–4 cm wide, yellow with a brownish base.
– Gills are yellow, and spores are white.
– Cap’s skin layer is sticky and peelable.
– Forms ectomycorrhiza with pine trees.

– Toxicity:
– Highly regarded as a tasty edible species but concerns raised about toxicity.
– Poisoning symptoms include muscle weakness, pain, stiffness, dark urine.
– No reported cases of poisoning in North America; speculation on species differences.
Poison mechanism suspected to be rhabdomyolysis.
– Studies show elevated plasma creatine kinase levels, liver function biomarker effects.

– Common Names:
– Known as “man-on-horseback” and “yellow knight.”
– Also referred to as “saddle-shaped tricholoma.”
– Grünling in German, gąska zielonka in Polish, míscaro in Portuguese, canari in French.
– Abundant in France and Central Portugal.
– Treasured as an edible mushroom worldwide.

– Mycological Characteristics:
– Gills on hymenium, cap is flat, hymenium is adnexed.
– Stipe is bare, spore print is white.
– Cap is usually yellow with brownish areas.
– Stem is yellow with a brownish base.
– Sticky skin layer covering the cap.

– Research and Studies:
– Research conducted in Poland with volunteers eating fried T. equestre showed no immediate consequences.
– Systematic review in 2020 highlighted concerns about elevated plasma creatine kinase levels and liver function biomarkers.
– Poisoning mechanism suspected to be rhabdomyolysis.
– Cases of poisoning reported with some resulting in death.
– Speculation on differences in species between Europe and North America.

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