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**Ecological Role of Acorns:**
– Acorns are crucial in forest ecology.
– The abundance of acorn crops impacts various animals.
– Acorns are termed mast along with other nuts.
– Various wildlife species feed on acorns due to their rich nutrients.
– Acorns rely on biological seed dispersal agents like squirrels and jays.

**Anatomy, Nutrition, and Uses of Acorns:**
– Acorns contain one or occasionally two seeds with tough shells.
– They are rich in carbohydrates, fats, proteins, vitamins, and minerals.
– Acorns also contain bitter tannins which can be removed by leaching.
– Acorns can be used to make flour, roasted for enhanced flavor, and even as massage oil.
– Traditional methods of leaching acorns have been passed down in some cultures.

**Culinary and Historical Uses of Acorns:**
– Acorns were once a dietary staple in various cultures.
– They were important in early human history as a food source.
– Acorns have been used in ancient Iberian cuisine and as a coffee substitute.
– Native Americans stored acorns for long periods for winter scarcity.
– Acorns can be used in modern diets after proper preparation.

**Cultural Significance of Acorns:**
– The acorn motif is prevalent in Roman, Celtic, and Scandinavian art.
– Acorns have been used as symbols in military and various institutions.
– Acorns are charged in heraldry and symbolize National Trails in England and Wales.
– Acorns have cultural significance in various societies and have been featured in literature and art.
– Acorns are not only snacks for animals but also hold cultural value.

**Management and Utilization of Acorns:**
– Symposiums have discussed the ecology and management of California oaks, including acorns.
– Acorns have management implications for oak habitats.
– Acorns can be processed into flour for culinary uses.
– Reports from the USDA Forest Service focus on the management implications of mammals in oak habitats.
– The utilization of acorns has implications for the management and preservation of oak habitats.

Acorn (Wikipedia)

The acorn, or oaknut, is the nut of the oaks and their close relatives (genera Quercus and Lithocarpus, in the family Fagaceae). It usually contains one seed (occasionally two seeds), enclosed in a tough, leathery shell, and borne in a cup-shaped cupule. Acorns are 1–6 cm (122+12 in) long and 0.8–4 cm (381+58 in) on the fat side. Acorns take between 5 and 24 months (depending on the species) to mature; see the list of Quercus species for details of oak classification, in which acorn morphology and phenology are important factors.

English oak acorn
Acorns from small to large of the Willow Oak, Q. phellos (very small, at center); the Southern Red Oak, Q. falcata; the White Oak, Q. alba; the Scarlet Oak, Q. coccinea; from southern Greenville County, SC, USA. Scale bar at upper right is 1 centimetre (0.39 in).
Diagram of the anatomy of an acorn: A.) Cupule B.) Pericarp (fruit wall) C.) Seed coat (testa) D.) Cotyledons (2) E.) Plumule F.) Radicle G.) Remains of style. Together D., E., and F. make up the embryo.
Acorn, raw
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy1,619 kJ (387 kcal)
40.75 g
23.85 g
Saturated3.102 g
Monounsaturated15.109 g
Polyunsaturated4.596 g
6.15 g
Tryptophan0.074 g
Threonine0.236 g
Isoleucine0.285 g
Leucine0.489 g
Lysine0.384 g
Methionine0.103 g
Cystine0.109 g
Phenylalanine0.269 g
Tyrosine0.187 g
Valine0.345 g
Arginine0.473 g
Histidine0.170 g
Alanine0.350 g
Aspartic acid0.635 g
Glutamic acid0.986 g
Glycine0.285 g
Proline0.246 g
Serine0.261 g
Vitamin A equiv.
2 μg
Thiamine (B1)
0.112 mg
Riboflavin (B2)
0.118 mg
Niacin (B3)
1.827 mg
Pantothenic acid (B5)
0.715 mg
Vitamin B6
0.528 mg
Folate (B9)
87 μg
Vitamin C
0.0 mg
41 mg
.621 mg
0.79 mg
62 mg
1.337 mg
79 mg
539 mg
0 mg
0.51 mg
Other constituentsQuantity
Water27.9 g

Percentages estimated using US recommendations for adults, except for potassium, which is estimated based on expert recommendation from the National Academies.
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