Skip to Content

Canarium ovatum – Wikipedia

« Back to Glossary Index

**Description and Distribution:**
– Canarium ovatum is an evergreen tree native to the Philippines, reaching an average height of 20m.
– It bears flowers on cymose inflorescences and produces drupe fruits with fibrous, greenish-yellow pulp.
– The kernels contain approximately 8% carbohydrate, 11.5–13.9% protein, and 70% fat.
– The tree thrives in deep, fertile, well-drained soil and warm temperatures.
Seed germination is challenging, and asexual propagation methods are inconsistent.

**Cultivation and Production:**
– Major production centers are located in the Bicol region and other provinces in the Philippines.
– Pili nuts are a flagship commodity of the Bicol region, with fruits collected from natural stands in mountainous regions.
– The pulp oil can be extracted for cooking, while the kernels are used in candies and brittle.
– There are variations in kernel qualities and production levels among different trees.

**Nutritional Value and Uses:**
– 100g of dried Canarium ovatum provides 3,008 kJ (719 kcal) of energy, with 79.55g of fat and 10.80g of protein.
– The nuts contain essential amino acids, vitamins (B1 and B3), and minerals like Calcium, Iron, and Magnesium.
– Pili nuts are commercially sold under various brands and are used in candies and brittle.
– The species is also known as Java almond and is used in maritime Southeast Asia.

**Propagation Methods:**
– Propagation methods for pili nut trees include seed germination, marcotting, patch budding, cleft grafting, air layering, and inarching.
– Trees start fruiting after 5 to 6 years, with economic yield by the 10th year.
– Asexual propagation is preferred for more female plants, removal of juvenile period, and genetic uniformity.
– Marcotting and air layering are simple asexual methods with varying success rates.

**Future Prospects and Research:**
– Challenges in clonal propagation hinder superior germplasm collection and feasibility trials.
– Efforts are made to synthesize commercially viable pili tree cultivars and enhance propagation methods.
– Studies on in vitro and vegetative propagation aim to multiply and preserve pili germplasm.
– Collaborative efforts involving USDA-ARS and the Department of Agriculture focus on improving pili nut tree propagation methods.

« Back to Glossary Index