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Carya laciniosa – Wikipedia

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**1. Habitat and Distribution:**
– Shellbark hickory is widely distributed but not common.
– Range extends from western New York to Pennsylvania and south to Arkansas.
– Most prominent in the lower Ohio River region and along the Mississippi River.
– Human activities have made shellbark hickory rare in its natural range.
– Not commonly planted as an ornamental due to slow growth and transplant difficulty.

**2. Climate Conditions:**
– Frost-free period within shellbark hickory’s range is 150 to 210 days.
– Average January temperature ranges from -4 to 5°C, and July temperature from 23 to 27°C.
– Minimum temperature can reach -26°C, and maximum temperature 38°C.
– Annual precipitation varies between 750 and 1,500mm, including snowfall.
– Climate conditions impact the growth and distribution of shellbark hickory.

**3. Soil and Topography Preferences:**
– Thrives in deep, fertile, moist soils typical of Alfisols.
– Does not do well in heavy clay but grows on loams or silt loams.
– Neutral or slightly alkaline soils are best for growth.
– Prefers bottomland areas and river terraces.
– Can adapt to various topographic and physiographic sites.

**4. Associated Forest Cover and Growth Characteristics:**
– May grow in groups or singly with other hardwoods.
– Part of forest cover types like bur oak and pin oak-sweetgum.
– Often found with American elm, slippery elm, and various oak species.
– Growth rates vary from sapling to mature tree stages.
– Strong competitor in its habitat.

**5. Uses, Genetics, and Characteristics:**
– Seeds within shellbark hickory nuts are edible.
– Consumed by various wildlife species.
– Plantations established for nut production.
Wood used for various purposes.
– Hybridizes with pecan and shagbark hickory.
– Develops mycorrhizal associations with specific fungi.
– Not heavily impacted by insects or diseases, but some pests can affect seed production.

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