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Citrus unshiu – Wikipedia

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**Nomenclature and Classification**:
– Known as wēnzhōu mìgān in China, mikan in Japan, and unshū mikan in Japanese.
– Alternative names: wúhé jú in China and satsuma in English.
– Considered a separate species under Tanaka classification and grouped as mandarin varieties under the Swingle system.
– Genetic analysis shows it as a mandarin-pomelo hybrid, with 22% of its genome from pomelo.

**Characteristics and History**:
– Considered the sweetest citrus variety, typically seedless, and easy to peel with loose, leathery skin.
– Usually has 10 to 12 segments and is cold-hardy.
– Introduced to the US in the late 19th century, with the Owari mikans being brought in 1878.
– The Becnel family is one of the largest growers of Louisiana citrus, and there are towns named after the fruit in the US.

**Distribution and Varieties**:
– Grown in Japan, Spain, China, Korea, US, South Africa, South America, New Zealand, and around the Black Sea.
– Clustered among mandarin family varieties and includes hybrids like Amanatsu, Kinkoji unshiu, Kiyomi, Dekopon, and Kobayashi mikan.
– Some possible non-hybrid varieties include Kishu mikan, Ōgonkan or Ki-mikan, and Komikan.

**Satsuma Mandarin and Citrus Genetics**:
– Originated in Nagashima, Kagoshima, with hybrid origins inferred from DNA marker analysis.
– Satsuma mandarin genome sequence unveiled and parental diagnosis revealed by markers.
– Research on the genomics of the origin and evolution of Citrus, genetic diversity in citrus germplasm collection, and identification of Citrus chimeras by RAPD markers.

**Cultivation and Research References**:
– Mikan cultivation in warmer regions of Japan, with unshu mikan being the most important variety since the late 19th century.
– Use of chitosan in the preservation of agricultural commodities.
– External links and references to Wikimedia Commons related to Citrus Unshiu group, university research studies and publications, citrus variety collections at the University of California Riverside, and an illustrated guide on citrus varieties of the world.

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