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Mandarin orange

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**Group 1: Mandarins – Etymology and Botany**

– The name ‘mandarin orange’ originates from the Swedish term ‘mandarin apelsin,’ which comes from the German ‘Apfelsine’ meaning ‘Chinese apple.’
– The Imperial Chinese term ‘mandarine’ was adopted by the French for this fruit.
– The Latin term ‘Citrus reticulata’ means netted.
– The reason for the epithet ‘mandarin’ is unclear, and the name has been used since the 18th century.
– Mandarin oranges grow on moderate-sized trees around 7.6 meters (25ft) tall with thorny trunks and branches.
– The leaves of mandarin trees are shiny, green, and small.
– Citrus trees are usually self-fertile or parthenocarpic.
– A mature mandarin tree can yield up to 79 kilograms (175lb) of fruit.

**Group 2: Mandarin Production and Uses**

– In 2020, global production of mandarin oranges was 38.6 million tonnes, with China leading at 60%.
– Spain produced over two million tonnes in 2020, while Turkey, Egypt, and Morocco were other significant producers with around one million tonnes each.
– Mandarin oranges can be grown in tropical and subtropical areas and are one of the most commercially important citrus hybrids.
– Culinary uses of mandarin oranges include fresh consumption, salads, desserts, and main dishes.
– Mandarin peel can be used fresh, dried, or zested in various dishes, and canned mandarin segments are prepared by removing the white pith through a chemical process.
– In traditional Chinese medicine, dried mandarin peel is used to regulate qi and enhance digestion, and mandarin oranges are also used in the production of drinks and spirits.

**Group 3: Mandarin Genetics, Varieties, and Crosses**

– Mandarins are considered one of the original citrus taxa, evolving in regions like South China, Japan, and Vietnam.
– Domestication of mandarins is believed to have occurred twice, in the north and south Nanling Mountains, with distinct genetic clusters and patterns of pomelo introgression.
– Various mandarin cultivars like Nanfengmiju and Satsuma are derived from these genetic clusters.
– Stem mandarins include Mangshan wild mandarins, Daoxian mandarines, and Suanpangan.
– Domesticated mandarins and hybrids like Kinnow, Sun Chu Sha, and Cleopatra are widely cultivated.
– Tangelos, Mandelos, and Clementines are modern mandarin crosses.

**Group 4: Citrus Hybrids and Varieties**

– Murcott is a mandarin × sweet orange hybrid, with one parent being the King, while Tango is a proprietary seedless mid-late season irradiated selection of Murcott.
– Kiyomi is a Satsuma/sweet orange hybrid from Japan, and Dekopon is a hybrid between Kiyomi and ponkan, marketed in the United States as Sumo Citrus®.
Lemon is a sour orange × citron hybrid, and Fairchild is a hybrid of Clementine and Orlando tangelo.
– Several kumquat-hybrid Citrofortunella varieties exist, including calamansi, citrangequat, orangequat, mandarinquat, and sunquat.
– The Kunenbo mandarin × yuzu cross is a unique citrus hybrid, while grapefruit is the result of backcrossing the sweet orange with pomelo.

**Group 5: Research, Regulations, and Additional Resources**

– Sequencing of mandarin, pomelo, and orange genomes has revealed a complex history of admixture.
– DNA marker analysis has helped trace the hybrid origins of citrus varieties, providing insights into the genealogy and domestication of citrus.
– Florida Administrative Code provides classification and standards for Sunburst Tangerines, and market classification, maturity standards, and processing restrictions are outlined for citrus hybrids.
– External resources like Wikimedia Commons, NatureServe, and Clara H. Hasse offer valuable information on citrus biodiversity and research.
– Compliance with industry regulations is essential for maintaining quality and consistency in the citrus industry.

Mandarin orange (Wikipedia)

The mandarin orange (Citrus reticulata), also known as mandarin or mandarine, is a small, rounded citrus tree fruit. Treated as a distinct species of orange, it is usually eaten plain or in fruit salads. Tangerines are a group of orange-coloured citrus fruit consisting of hybrids of mandarin orange with some pomelo contribution.

Scientific classification Edit this classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Tracheophytes
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Clade: Rosids
Order: Sapindales
Family: Rutaceae
Genus: Citrus
C. reticulata
Binomial name
Citrus reticulata
Blanco, 1837

Mandarins are smaller and oblate, unlike the spherical common oranges (which are a mandarin–pomelo hybrid). The taste is considered sweeter and stronger than the common orange. A ripe mandarin is firm to slightly soft, heavy for its size, and pebbly-skinned. The peel is thin, loose, with little white mesocarp, so they are usually easier to peel and to split into segments. Hybrids usually have these traits to a lesser degree. The mandarin is tender and is damaged easily by cold. It can be grown in tropical and subtropical areas.

According to genetic studies, the mandarin was one of the original citrus species; through breeding or natural hybridization, it is the ancestor of many hybrid citrus cultivars. With the citron and pomelo, it is the ancestor of the most commercially important hybrids (such as sweet and sour oranges, grapefruit, and many lemons and limes). The mandarin has also been hybridized with other citrus species, such as the desert lime and the kumquat. Though the ancestral mandarin was bitter, most commercial mandarin strains derive from hybridization with pomelo, which gives them a sweet fruit.

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