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Orange (fruit)

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**Botanical and Historical Aspects**:
– Oranges are a result of a cross between a mandarin orange and a hybrid pomelo.
– Citrus trees are almost entirely interfertile, leading to various hybrids.
– The Arab Agricultural Revolution spread citrus fruits across Europe.
– Orangeries were built in Europe to cultivate oranges.
– Oranges have a distinct origin from the bitter orange.
– Oranges depicted in Western art since the 15th century.
– Artists like Vincent van Gogh and John Sloan featured oranges in their works.
– Citrus phylogeny and genetic origins studied for important species.
– Citrus sinensis identified as the sweet orange species.
– Genome sequencing of sweet orange conducted for genetic studies.

**Cultivation and Production**:
– Oranges thrive in temperatures between 15.5 and 29°C and require ample sunshine and water.
– Commercial orange trees are propagated asexually by grafting.
– Brazil leads global orange production with 16.9 million tonnes.
– The United States has established grades for Florida oranges.
– Production varies by region and cultivar.
– Oranges are primarily used for juice, with Florida oranges for fresh fruit and Californian oranges for juice.
– Oranges can be stored in controlled-atmosphere chambers for up to 12 weeks commercially.

**Nutritional and Health Benefits**:
– Oranges are a good source of vitamin C.
– Studies on the bioaccessibility of carotenoids, flavonoids, and vitamin C in oranges.
– Quantitative assessment of citric acid in various citrus juices.
– Oranges contain carotenoids, flavonoids, and volatile organic compounds.
– Orange flesh is 87% water, 12% carbohydrates, and 1% protein.

**Culinary and Commercial Applications**:
– Oranges are commonly eaten fresh or squeezed for juice.
– Frozen orange juice concentrate is made from filtered juice.
– Oranges are versatile for desserts, drinks, and culinary uses.
– Sweet orange oil is used in food, perfume, and aromatherapy.
– Commercial production and processing of citrus fruits, including oranges.

**Pests, Diseases, and Culinary Uses**:
– Citrus greening disease is a major threat to orange production.
– Pest control is essential for healthy orange trees.
– Oranges are used to make marmalade, extracts, and other food products.
– Various dictionaries define terms related to oranges and their characteristics.
– The term ‘orange’ traced back to its etymology and color definitions.

Orange (fruit) (Wikipedia)

An orange, also called sweet orange to distinguish it from the bitter orange Citrus × aurantium, is the fruit of a tree in the family Rutaceae. Botanically, this is the hybrid Citrus × sinensis, between the pomelo (Citrus maxima) and the mandarin orange (Citrus reticulata). The chloroplast genome, and therefore the maternal line, is that of pomelo. The sweet orange has had its full genome sequenced.

Orange—whole, halved, and peeled segment

The orange originated in a region encompassing Southern China, Northeast India, and Myanmar; the earliest mention of the sweet orange was in Chinese literature in 314 BC. Orange trees are widely grown for their sweet fruit. The fruit of the orange tree can be eaten fresh, or processed for its juice or fragrant peel. In 2022, 76 million tonnes of oranges were grown worldwide, with Brazil producing 22% of the total, followed by India and China.

Oranges have featured in human culture since ancient times. They first appear in Western art in the Arnolfini Portrait by Jan van Eyck, but they had been depicted in Chinese art centuries earlier, as in Zhao Lingrang's Song dynasty fan painting Yellow Oranges and Green Tangerines. By the 17th century, an orangery had become an item of prestige in Europe, as seen at the Versailles Orangerie. More recently, artists such as Vincent van Gogh, John Sloan, and Henri Matisse included oranges in their paintings.

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