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Citrus – Wikipedia

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Citrus Plant Origins and Evolution
– Citrus plants are native to subtropical and tropical regions of Asia, Island Southeast Asia, Near Oceania, and northeastern and central Australia.
– Genomic analysis suggests the center of origin of the genus Citrus is likely the southeast foothills of the Himalayas.
– Citrus species spread into Taiwan and Japan in the Early Pliocene.
– Citrus fruit evolved from small berries over millions of years.
– Citrus species diverged from a common ancestor about 15 million years ago.
– Ancestral species associated with modern Citrus cultivars are the mandarin orange, pomelo, and citron.
– Citrus first evolved in the foothills of the Himalayas, according to a DNA study.
– Most commercially important citrus fruits are hybrids involving mandarin orange, pomelo, and citron.
– Fossil leaf specimens of Citrus meletensis have been found in Italy, and Citrus linczangensis in China.
– The taxonomy and systematics of the Citrus genus are complex due to many named species being hybrids.

Citrus Fruit Production and Cultivation
Citrus production was 124 million metric tons in 2016.
– Citrus trade makes up nearly half of the world fruit trade.
– Oranges were the most produced citrus fruit in 2019–20.
– Major producers include Brazil, Mexico, the EU, and China.
– Citrus trees are not frost hardy, except mandarin oranges.
– Trees need a sunny, humid environment with fertile soil.
Fruit ripens in fall or early winter, depending on the cultivar.
– Some citrus varieties take up to 18 months to ripen.
– Most commercial cultivation uses grafted trees for desired fruit.
– Citrus trees are evergreen and do not drop leaves except under stress.

Citrus Fruit Culinary and Health Uses
– Citrus fruits like oranges, tangerines, grapefruits are commonly eaten fresh.
Lemon and lime juices are used in cooking and beverages.
– Citrus zest is used for flavoring in cooking.
– Marmalade is made from cooked orange or lemon.
– Citrus fruits are used as garnishes in drinks and dishes.
– Consumption of citrus fruits is linked to a 10% reduced breast cancer risk.
– Citrus fruits are rich in vitamin C and flavonoids.
– Adding acidic fertilizer can revive citrus plants experiencing chlorosis deficiency.
– Citrus prefers neutral soil pH, and excessive salt in soil harms citrus plants.

Citrus Fruit Pests, Diseases, and Deficiency
– Citrus canker caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis.
– Citrus plants are prone to infestation by aphids, whitefly, and scale insects.
– Citrus tristeza virus is transmitted by aphids.
– Asian citrus psyllid carries Huanglongbing disease.
– Citrus greening disease is devastating to citrus groves.
– Citrus plants can develop chlorosis deficiency due to high pH preventing nutrient absorption.
– Proper soil testing is important to diagnose nutrient-deficiency diseases.
– Excessive salt in soil harms citrus plants.

Citrus Fruit Varieties and Hybrids
– Descendants of mandarins have low furanocoumarins, while hybrids like limes and grapefruits have high furanocoumarins.
– Citrus peel contains more furanocoumarins than pulp.
– Citron varieties include Alemow, Colo, Buddhas hand, and others with varying pulp characteristics.
Lemon varieties include Ponderosa, Key lime, Persian lime, and others.
– Other citrus varieties include Calamansi, Calamondin, Blood orange, Chinotto, and more.
– Sweetie is a pomelo-grapefruit hybrid, and Clementines have thinner skins compared to oranges.
– Citrus hybrids like Tangelo, Tangor, Sweet oranges, and others are widely used in various foods.

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