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Citrus production

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**1. Citrus Production Overview:**
– History dating back to 4,000 BC in Southeast Asia.
– Spread to northern Africa during the Roman Empire, reaching Europe in the Middle Ages.
– Brought to the Americas by Spanish explorers in the 20th century.
– Global citrus production in 2020 was 144 million metric tons.
– Top producers include Brazil, China, India, EU, USA, Mexico, and Egypt.
– Citrus is the largest fruit trade in financial value.
– 79% of production in the Northern Hemisphere.
– Florida leads in orange juice and grapefruit production in the US.

**2. Citrus Diseases and Challenges:**
– Citrus canker caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis affects citrus trees.
– Outbreaks in Australia, Brazil, and the US impact production.
– Citrus greening disease (Huanglongbing) is severe in Florida.
– Spread through the Asian citrus psyllid affecting all Florida growers.
– Citrus grove productivity strategies to combat Huanglongbing.
– Nutritional deficiencies like boron, copper, iron, and manganese impact fruit quality.

**3. Citrus Nutrition and Care:**
– Main macronutrients for citrus include nitrogen, potassium, phosphorus, calcium, magnesium, and sulfur.
– Micronutrients like boron, copper, iron, and manganese are crucial for enzymatic functions.
– Foliar and soil fertilizers used to combat citrus greening.
– Vector control of psyllid crucial for preventing citrus greening spread.
– Care-taking strategies to maintain productivity and combat Huanglongbing.

**4. Citrus Industry Management:**
– Insecticide resistance in Asian citrus psyllid and other pests.
– Climate change impacts on citrus growth.
– Labor shortages affecting citrus harvesting.
– Solutions include integrated pest management, resistant varieties, and precision agriculture.
– Market trends include rising demand for organic products and growth in exports.

**5. Citrus Industry Innovations and Sustainability:**
– Development of new cultivation techniques and automated harvesting machines.
– Use of blockchain for traceability and drones for crop monitoring.
– Research on gene editing for improved traits.
– Sustainability efforts include water conservation, eco-friendly pest control, and recycling waste.
– Collaboration with environmental organizations for sustainable farming practices.

Citrus production (Wikipedia)

Citrus production encompasses the production of citrus fruit, which are the highest-value fruit crop in terms of international trade. There are two main markets for citrus fruit:

  • The fresh fruit market
  • The processed citrus fruits market (mainly orange juice)
Major citrus growing regions
Gathering oranges in Cayo, Belize

Oranges account for the majority of citrus production but the industry also sees significant quantities of grapefruits, pomeloes, lemons, and limes.

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