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Taxonomy and Evolution:
– Cockroaches are part of the superorder Dictyoptera, along with termites and mantids.
– Currently, there are 4,600 species and over 460 genera of cockroaches worldwide.
– The name “cockroach” comes from the Spanish word “cucaracha.”
– The scientific name “Blattaria” was used interchangeably with “Blattodea.”
– Fossil evidence shows cockroach-like ancestors from the Carboniferous period 320 million years ago.

– Most cockroach species are thumbnail-sized, but some are larger.
– The heaviest cockroach is the Australian giant burrowing cockroach.
– The longest cockroach species is Megaloblatta longipennis.
– Cockroaches have a small head, broad flattened body, and reddish-brown color.
– They have large compound eyes, two ocelli, and long antennae.

Habitats and Adaptations:
– Cockroaches are hardy insects that can tolerate various climates.
– Tropical cockroaches are generally larger than temperate species.
– They have chewing mouthparts and are considered primitive Neopteran insects.
– Cockroaches have a tough exoskeleton with calcium carbonate.
– Their wings are used for flight and protection.

Behavior and Social Structure:
– Some species, like the German cockroach, have complex social structures.
– Cockroaches exhibit common shelter behavior, social dependence, and kin recognition.
– They have appeared in human culture since classical antiquity.
– Cockroaches are often depicted as pests, but most species are small and harmless.
– They live in diverse habitats worldwide.

Interactions with Humans:
– About 30 out of 4,600 cockroach species are associated with human habitats.
– Certain species are well-known pests.
– Cockroaches have been part of human culture for a long time.
– They are commonly depicted as dirty pests, although most species are inoffensive.
– Cockroaches can adapt to living in various human-made environments.

Cockroach (Wikipedia)

Cockroaches (or roaches) are insects belonging to the order Blattodea (Blattaria). About 30 cockroach species out of 4,600 are associated with human habitats. Some species are well-known as pests.

Temporal range: 145–0 Ma Cretaceous–recent
Common household cockroaches
A) German cockroach
B) American cockroach
C) Australian cockroach
D&E) Oriental cockroach (♀ & ♂)
Scientific classification Edit this classification
Domain: Eukaryota
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Superorder: Dictyoptera
Order: Blattodea


The cockroaches are an ancient group, with their ancestors, known as "roachoids", originating during the Carboniferous period, some 320 million years ago. Those early ancestors, however, lacked the internal ovipositors of modern roaches. Cockroaches are somewhat generalized insects lacking special adaptations (such as the sucking mouthparts of aphids and other true bugs); they have chewing mouthparts and are probably among the most primitive of living Neopteran insects. They are common and hardy insects capable of tolerating a wide range of climates, from Arctic cold to tropical heat. Tropical cockroaches are often much larger than temperate species.

Modern cockroaches are not considered to be a monophyletic group, as it has been found based on genetics that termites are deeply nested within the group, with some groups of cockroaches more closely related to termites than they are to other cockroaches, thus rendering Blattaria paraphyletic. Both cockroaches and termites are included into Blattodea.

Some species, such as the gregarious German cockroach, have an elaborate social structure involving common shelter, social dependence, information transfer and kin recognition. Cockroaches have appeared in human culture since classical antiquity. They are popularly depicted as large, dirty pests, although the majority of species are small and inoffensive and live in a wide range of habitats around the world.

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