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Coffee bean

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**1. History and Distribution of Coffee:**
Coffee plant discovered in Ethiopia around 850 AD
– First found in Yemen, exported worldwide by 1500
– Cultivation in India (Chikmagalur) in 1600
– Cultivation in Europe in 1616
– Cultivation in Java in 1699
– Brazil produces 45% of world’s coffee exports
– United States top importer of coffee
– Americans consume 400 million cups of coffee daily
Coffee belt between tropics of Cancer and Capricorn
– Top 20 coffee producers in green on the map

**2. Coffee Plant Characteristics and Growth:**
Coffee tree height averages 5-10m
Coffee beans come from seeds in fruits
– Specific conditions needed for growth
– Arabica grown at 15-24°C, Robusta at 24-30°C
– Rainfall requirements for coffee growth

**3. Coffee Bean Composition:**
– Nonvolatile Alkaloids: caffeine, theophylline, theobromine, paraxanthine, liberine, methylliberine, trigonelline
– Proteins and Amino Acids: 8-12% proteins, amino acid degradation during maturation and roasting
– Carbohydrates: 50% of dry weight, polysaccharides, monosaccharides, mannitol
– Lipids: linoleic acid, palmitic acid, oleic acid, stearic acid, diterpenes
– Nonvolatile Chlorogenic Acids: antioxidants, phenolic acids

**4. Processing Methods and Volatile Compounds:**
– Handpicking methods: selective and strip-picking
– Wet process: fermenting and washing seeds
– Dry process: sun-drying berries
– Asian palm civet processing method
– Kopi luwak marketed as rare and expensive coffee
– Volatile compounds in green coffee beans contribute to taste and aroma

**5. Health Benefits and Commercial Success:**
– Starbucks achieved commercial success with Green Bean Refreshers
– Green coffee beans steeped in hot water for extract
– Chlorogenic acids in coffee beans offer health benefits
Coffee consumption linked to reduced risk of diseases
– Caffeine content provides temporary energy boost

Coffee bean (Wikipedia)

A coffee bean is a seed from the Coffea plant and the source for coffee. It is the pip inside the red or purple fruit. This fruit is often referred to as a coffee cherry, and like the cherry, it is a fruit with a pip. Even though the coffee beans are not technically beans, they are referred to as such because of their resemblance to true beans. The fruits most commonly contain two stones with their flat sides together. A small percentage of cherries contain a single seed, instead of the usual two, called a "peaberry". The peaberry occurs only between 10% and 15% of the time, and it is a fairly common (yet scientifically unproven) belief that they have more flavour than normal coffee beans. Like Brazil nuts (a seed) and white rice, coffee beans consist mostly of endosperm.

Coffee beans
Roasted coffee beans
Region of originHorn of Africa and South Arabia

The two most economically important varieties of coffee plants are the Arabica and the Robusta; approximately 60% of the coffee produced worldwide is Arabica and ~40% is Robusta. Arabica beans consist of 0.8–1.4% caffeine and Robusta beans consist of 1.7–4.0% caffeine. As coffee is one of the world's most widely consumed beverages, coffee beans are a major cash crop and an important export product, accounting for over 50% of some developing nations' foreign exchange earnings. This has made coffee very important in culture and food around the world. In 2017, 70% of total coffee production was exported, worth US$19.9 billion.The global coffee industry is massive and valued at $495.50 billion as of 2023, the biggest producer of coffee and coffee beans is Brazil. Other main exporters of coffee beans are Colombia, Vietnam and Ethiopia.

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