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– Classification:
Fagaceae divided into 5-6 subfamilies with 8-10 genera.
– Monophyly supported by morphological and molecular data.
– Southern Hemisphere genus Nothofagus now in its own family.
– Nothofagus differs from Fagaceae in various characteristics.
– Nothofagus formerly placed in Fagaceae but now in Nothofagaceae.

– Subfamilies and genera:
– Fagoideae: includes Fagus with 10-13 species.
– Quercoideae: includes Castanea, Castanopsis, Chrysolepis, Lithocarpus, Notholithocarpus, Quercus, Trigonobalanus.
– Cyclobalanopsis treated as a distinct genus by some taxonomists.
– Nothofagus now in Nothofagaceae.

– Distribution:
Fagaceae widely distributed in Northern Hemisphere.
– Genus-level diversity concentrated in Southeast Asia.
Fagaceae species ecologically dominant in northern temperate forests.
– Over 400 Fagaceae species in tropical Southeast Asia.
Fagaceae migrated to Europe and North America via Bering Land Bridge.

– Economic uses:
Oak, chestnut, and beech commonly used as timber.
– Cork oak bark used for cork production.
– Fagus wood chips used in flavoring beers.
– Chestnuts from Castanea used as fruits.
– Nuts from Asian tropical genera Castanopsis and Lithocarpus edible and ornamental.

– Importance:
Fagaceae ecologically important in Northern Hemisphere.
– Oaks crucial for temperate forests in North America, Europe, and Asia.
Fagaceae significant sources of wildlife food.
Fagaceae members have important economic uses.
– Several Fagaceae species are prominent ornamentals.

Fagaceae (Wikipedia)

The Fagaceae (/ˌfəɡˈsˌ, -iˌ/; from the Latin fagus, beech tree) are a family of flowering plants that includes beeches, chestnuts and oaks, and comprises eight genera with about 927 species. Fagaceae in temperate regions are mostly deciduous, whereas in the tropics, many species occur as evergreen trees and shrubs. They are characterized by alternate simple leaves with pinnate venation, unisexual flowers in the form of catkins, and fruit in the form of cup-like (cupule) nuts. Their leaves are often lobed, and both petioles and stipules are generally present. Their fruits lack endosperm and lie in a scaly or spiny husk that may or may not enclose the entire nut, which may consist of one to seven seeds. In the oaks, genus Quercus, the fruit is a non-valved nut (usually containing one seed) called an acorn. The husk of the acorn in most oaks only forms a cup in which the nut sits. Other members of the family have fully enclosed nuts. Fagaceae is one of the most ecologically important woody plant families in the Northern Hemisphere, as oaks form the backbone of temperate forest in North America, Europe, and Asia, and are one of the most significant sources of wildlife food.

Beech family
European beech, Fagus sylvatica
Scientific classification Edit this classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Tracheophytes
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Clade: Rosids
Order: Fagales
Family: Fagaceae
Type genus

See text.

The range of Fagaceae.
  • Castaneaceae Brenner
  • Quercaceae Martinov

Several members of the Fagaceae have important economic uses. Many species of oak, chestnut, and beech (genera Quercus, Castanea, and Fagus, respectively) are commonly used as timber for floors, furniture, cabinets, and wine barrels. Cork for stopping wine bottles and a myriad other uses is made from the bark of cork oak, Quercus suber. Chestnuts are the fruits from species of the genus Castanea. Numerous species from several genera are prominent ornamentals. Wood chips from the genus Fagus are often used in flavoring beers. Nuts of some species in the Asian tropical genera Castanopsis and Lithocarpus are edible and often used as ornamentals.

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