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Fusarium wilt

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**Hosts and Symptoms**:
– Fusarium oxysporum affects various hosts like tomato, tobacco, legumes, cucurbits, sweet potatoes, and banana.
– Symptoms include wilting, chlorosis, necrosis, premature leaf drop, browning of the vascular system, stunting, and damping-off.
– Different formae speciales target specific host plants, causing distinct symptoms.

**Disease Cycle**:
– F. oxysporum is a soil pathogen spreading through microconidia, macroconidia, and chlamydospores.
– It infects plants via water splash, planting equipment, infected transplants, and seeds.
– Infection occurs through mycelia or germinating spores penetrating plant roots, causing vascular vessel clogging.

– F. oxysporum is a soil saprophyte found globally, thriving in warm, moist soils.
– It survives in various soil types and environments, with optimal growth temperatures between 25-30°C.
– Infection through seeds can occur at temperatures as low as 14°C.

– Control methods include planting resistant varieties, cleaning up infected plant material, improving soil conditions, using fungicides, and flood fallowing.
– Planting resistant varieties is the most effective control method.
– Specific formae speciales may require tailored control measures like breeding for resistance and using biocontrol agents.

**Importance and Origin**:
– F. oxysporum is economically damaging to the banana industry and affects crops like potato, tomato, and pepper.
– Yield losses in tomatoes can reach up to 45%.
– The pathogen is present worldwide, with spread facilitated by global transportation.
– Some soils are Fusarium-suppressive, and the spread of specific strains like F. oxysporum f.sp. cubense originated in Asia.

Fusarium wilt (Wikipedia)

Fusarium wilt is a common vascular wilt fungal disease, exhibiting symptoms similar to Verticillium wilt. This disease has been investigated extensively since the early years of this century. The pathogen that causes Fusarium wilt is Fusarium oxysporum (F. oxysporum). The species is further divided into formae speciales based on host plant.

Fusarium wilt
A tobacco plant suffering from Fusarium wilt
Causal agentsFusarium oxysporum
HostsCannabis, Tomato, tobacco, legumes, cucurbits, cotton, sweet potatoes and banana
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