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– Lianas are common in tropical moist broadleaf forests.
– They can be found in temperate rainforests and deciduous forests.
– Lianas provide paths for arboreal animals across the forest canopy.
– They do not derive nutrients directly from trees but live at their expense.
– Lianas negatively impact tree growth, reproduction, and population growth rates.

– Lianas use host trees for stability and to reach the canopy.
– They damage hosts through abrasion and strangulation.
– Lianas increase the probability of tree mortality.
– They can support weaker trees during strong winds.
– Some tree species have evolved to avoid or shed lianas.

Length and Identification:
– Some lianas can grow to great lengths, up to 600 meters.
– The longest monocot liana is Calamus manan at 240 meters.
– Lianas can be distinguished from trees based on the stiffness of their stems.
– Examples of liana genera include Clematis, Vitis, and Ampelopsis.
– Various families like Fabaceae and Vitaceae include liana species.

Impact on Forests:
– Forests without lianas produce 150% more fruit.
– Trees with lianas have a higher probability of dying.
– Lianas alter the course of forest regeneration.
– They prevent tree seedlings from establishing.
– Lianas can cause a cascading effect of tree falls when one tree collapses.

– Studies have shown the negative impact of lianas on tree growth and diversity.
– Lianas are considered parasites of trees, living at their expense.
– Research has focused on the relationship between microhabitat structure and lemurs in Madagascar.
– Lianas have been found to suppress tree regeneration in forests.
Tree species vary in their tolerance for liana infestation.

External Links:
– Lianas and Climbing Plants of the Neotropics provide valuable information.
– Family treatments of lianas and climbing plants are available.
– A resource by Rhett Butler discusses vines and lianas in rainforests.
– The New Students Reference Work offers insights into lianas.
– Additional information on lianas can be found through external links.

Liana (Wikipedia)

A liana is a long-stemmed, woody vine that is rooted in the soil at ground level and uses trees, as well as other means of vertical support, to climb up to the canopy in search of direct sunlight. The word liana does not refer to a taxonomic grouping, but rather a habit of plant growth – much like tree or shrub. It comes from standard French liane, itself from an Antilles French dialect word meaning to sheave.[citation needed]

Mixed-species tangle of lianas in tropical Australia
Lianas in Udawattakele, Sri Lanka
A canopy of Entada gigas that has formed over a monkey ladder vine (Bauhinia glabra) on Kauai, Hawaii
Liana tangle across a forest in the Western Ghats
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