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Lima bean

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**Origin, Domestication, and Cultivation**:
– Lima beans originated in Meso- and South America with two gene pools indicating independent domestication events.
– Domestication occurred around 2000 BC in the Andes, leading to a large-seeded variety.
– Cultivation spread to the Old World in the 1500s.
– Lima beans have wild and domesticated varieties.
– Cultivation practices vary, with baby lima beans grown as a warm-season crop in the U.S. and specific planting and harvesting times.
– Different cultivars exist, with bush types maturing earlier than pole varieties.
– Production yields range from 2,900 to 5,000 kg per hectare.

**Defense Mechanisms and Plant Behavior**:
– Lima beans employ various defense mechanisms against predators, including extrafloral nectar secretion, the Jasmonic acid pathway, and cyanogenesis.
– They adapt to different climates worldwide and use signaling to carnivorous mites as a defense.
– Mechanical wounding and chemical elicitors trigger defense responses in plants.

**Toxicity and Nutrition**:
– Raw lima beans are toxic if not boiled for at least 10 minutes due to antinutrients like phytic acids, saponin, and others.
– Various methods like boiling, roasting, and soaking can reduce antinutrient levels.
– Lima beans are rich in nutrients such as carbohydrates, proteins, dietary fiber, vitamins (thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, folate), and minerals (calcium, iron, magnesium, potassium).
Germination enhances calcium and phosphorus bioavailability in lima beans.

**Health Benefits and Culinary Uses**:
– Lima beans are a good source of dietary fiber and high-quality protein with both soluble and insoluble fiber.
– Soluble fiber aids in blood sugar regulation and cholesterol reduction, while insoluble fiber prevents constipation.
– The high fiber content helps stabilize blood sugar levels, making them suitable for diabetes management and providing steady energy.

**Research, Environmental Impact, and Conservation**:
– Studies on the evolution, domestication, and benefits of lima beans have been conducted.
– The environmental impact of lima beans includes their role in ecosystem balance and the importance of preserving plant species diversity.
– Conservation efforts aim to sustainably cultivate lima beans and other plant species to maintain biodiversity.

Lima bean (Wikipedia)

A lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus), also commonly known as butter bean, sieva bean, double bean or Madagascar bean, is a legume grown for its edible seeds or beans.

Lima beans
Scientific classification Edit this classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Tracheophytes
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Clade: Rosids
Order: Fabales
Family: Fabaceae
Subfamily: Faboideae
Genus: Phaseolus
P. lunatus
Binomial name
Phaseolus lunatus
  • Dolichos tonkinensis Bui-Quang-Chieu
  • Phaseolus bipunctatus Jacq.
  • Phaseolus ilocanus Blanco
  • Phaseolus inamoenus L.
  • Phaseolus limensis Macfad.
  • Phaseolus lunatus var. macrocarpus (Moench) Benth.
  • Phaseolus macrocarpus Moench
  • Phaseolus portoricensis Spreng.
  • Phaseolus puberulus Kunth
  • Phaseolus rosei Piper
  • Phaseolus saccharatus Macfad.
  • Phaseolus tunkinensis Lour.
  • Phaseolus vexillatus Blanco, nom, illeg, non L.
  • Phaseolus viridis Piper
  • Phaseolus xuaresii Zuccagni
Lima beans in a seed catalogue, 1894
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