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**Riboflavin Overview**
– Definition: Riboflavin, also known as vitamin B2, is a water-soluble B vitamin.
– Functions: Crucial for coenzymes FMN and FAD synthesis, energy metabolism, and nutrient metabolism.
– Redox Reactions: Supports human flavoenzymes, enables redox reactions, and aids in antioxidant production.
– Micronutrient Metabolism: Essential for niacin, vitamin B6, and folate metabolism.
– Synthesis: Biosynthesis in bacteria, fungi, and plants; industrial-scale production using fungi and bacteria.

**Riboflavin Uses and Recommendations**
– Uses: Treatment of corneal thinning, migraine prevention, food coloring, and safe for human consumption.
– Dietary Recommendations: EARs, RDAs for different groups, no established ULs, EFSA PRI, and DRIs.
– Sources: Found in various foods, added to baby foods and cereals, and used in fortification programs.

**Riboflavin Fortification**
– Fortification Programs: Mandatory in 56 countries, voluntary in 16 countries, and global efforts to combat deficiency.
– Importance: Improves population-level riboflavin intake and addresses deficiency concerns.

**Riboflavin Absorption and Deficiency**
– Absorption: Mostly in the form of protein-bound coenzymes, active transport system, and liver uptake efficiency.
– Deficiency: Uncommon in the US due to fortification, symptoms include stomatitis, anemia, and birth defects.

**Riboflavin Deficiency: Prevalence, Symptoms, and Risk Factors**
– Prevalence: Uncommon in the US, most meet dietary requirements, risk factors include certain diets and health conditions.
– Symptoms: Stomatitis, anemia, liver/nervous system issues, and increased risk during pregnancy.
– Risk Factors: Alcoholism, vegetarianism, genetic defects, and specific health conditions contributing to deficiency.

Riboflavin (Wikipedia)

Riboflavin, also known as vitamin B2, is a vitamin found in food and sold as a dietary supplement. It is essential to the formation of two major coenzymes, flavin mononucleotide and flavin adenine dinucleotide. These coenzymes are involved in energy metabolism, cellular respiration, and antibody production, as well as normal growth and development. The coenzymes are also required for the metabolism of niacin, vitamin B6, and folate. Riboflavin is prescribed to treat corneal thinning, and taken orally, may reduce the incidence of migraine headaches in adults.

Chemical structure
Clinical data
Trade namesMany
Other nameslactochrome, lactoflavin, vitamin G
License data
Routes of
By mouth, intramuscular, intravenous
ATC code
Legal status
Legal status
  • US: Dietary supplement
Pharmacokinetic data
Elimination half-life66 to 84 minutes
  • 7,8-Dimethyl-10-[(2S,3S,4R)-2,3,4,5-tetrahydroxypentyl]benzo[g]pteridine-2,4-dione
CAS Number
PubChem CID
E numberE101, E101(iii) (colours) Edit this at Wikidata
CompTox Dashboard (EPA)
ECHA InfoCard100.001.370 Edit this at Wikidata
Chemical and physical data
Molar mass376.369 g·mol−1
3D model (JSmol)
  • c12cc(C)c(C)cc1N=C3C(=O)NC(=O)N=C3N2C[C@H](O)[C@H](O)[C@H](O)CO
  • InChI=InChI=1S/C17H20N4O6/c1-7-3-9-10(4-8(7)2)21(5-11(23)14(25)12(24)6-22)15-13(18-9)16(26)20-17(27)19-15/h3-4,11-12,14,22-25H,5-6H2,1-2H3,(H,20,26,27)/t11-,12+,14-/m0/s1 checkY

Riboflavin deficiency is rare and is usually accompanied by deficiencies of other vitamins and nutrients. It may be prevented or treated by oral supplements or by injections. As a water-soluble vitamin, any riboflavin consumed in excess of nutritional requirements is not stored; it is either not absorbed or is absorbed and quickly excreted in urine, causing the urine to have a bright yellow tint. Natural sources of riboflavin include meat, fish and fowl, eggs, dairy products, green vegetables, mushrooms, and almonds. Some countries require its addition to grains.

Riboflavin was discovered in 1920, isolated in 1933, and first synthesized in 1935. In its purified, solid form, it is a water-soluble yellow-orange crystalline powder. In addition to its function as a vitamin, it is used as a food coloring agent. Biosynthesis takes place in bacteria, fungi and plants, but not animals. Industrial synthesis of riboflavin was initially achieved using a chemical process, but current commercial manufacturing relies on fermentation methods using strains of fungi and genetically modified bacteria.

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