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**Group 1: Mangrove Adaptations and Biology**

– Mangroves have around 70 true species from 16 families, showing convergent evolution.
– They adapt to tropical conditions of variable salinity, tidal range, anaerobic soils, and intense sunlight.
– Southeast Asia, especially the Indonesian archipelago, boasts the highest mangrove biodiversity.
– Mangroves play a crucial role in coastal ecosystems.
Plant biodiversity in mangroves is generally low.
– Red mangroves use stilt or prop roots to survive inundation.
– Black mangroves develop pneumatophores for breathing in oxygen.
– Mangroves have wide aerenchyma in roots for internal transport.
– Mangroves have evolved mechanisms to retain water and adapt to saline conditions.

**Group 2: Mangrove Environmental Adaptations**

– Mangroves thrive in the upper half of the intertidal zone.
– Mangroves store gases in their roots, even when submerged during high tide.
– Mangroves adapt to inhospitable soil conditions.
– Red mangroves have impermeable roots to exclude salt.
– Pneumatophores allow mangroves to absorb gases and nutrients from the atmosphere.
– Indian mangroves can exclude 90% to 95% of salt in water.

**Group 3: Mangrove Ecosystem and Conservation**

Mangrove forests found in tropical and subtropical tidal areas.
– Mangroves adapt to intertidal existence with broad tolerance to salinity, temperature, and moisture.
Mangrove forests have high biodiversity despite few tree species.
Mangrove ecosystems provide habitat for diverse marine species.
– Mangroves protect coastlines from erosion, storm surge, and tsunamis.
– Restoration of mangrove forests is crucial for climate change mitigation.

**Group 4: Mangrove Role in Coastal Ecosystems**

Mangrove forests foster diverse food webs.
– Microorganisms, crustaceans, and small fish thrive in mangrove habitats.
Mangrove forests serve as nurseries for many fish species.
– Decomposition of organic matter enhances ecosystem productivity.
Mangrove decay can lead to peat deposits.

**Group 5: Mangrove Microbial Interactions**

– Microbes aid in nutrient transformation for plant assimilation.
– Provision of phytohormones to help mangroves combat phytopathogens.
– Assistance in heat and salinity tolerance for mangroves.
– Establishment of close associations between plants and microbes.
– Exchange of carbon metabolites through root exudates.

Mangrove (Wikipedia)

A mangrove is a shrub or tree that grows mainly in coastal saline or brackish water. Mangroves grow in an equatorial climate, typically along coastlines and tidal rivers. They have special adaptations to take in extra oxygen and to remove salt, which allow them to tolerate conditions that would kill most plants. The term is also used for tropical coastal vegetation consisting of such species. Mangroves are taxonomically diverse, as a result of convergent evolution in several plant families. They occur worldwide in the tropics and subtropics and even some temperate coastal areas, mainly between latitudes 30° N and 30° S, with the greatest mangrove area within 5° of the equator. Mangrove plant families first appeared during the Late Cretaceous to Paleocene epochs, and became widely distributed in part due to the movement of tectonic plates. The oldest known fossils of mangrove palm date to 75 million years ago.

Mangroves are hardy shrubs and trees that thrive in salt water and have specialised adaptations so they can survive the volatile energies of intertidal zones along marine coasts.
(Acrostichum aureum) fern

Mangroves are salt-tolerant trees, shrubs and ferns also called halophytes, and are adapted to live in harsh coastal conditions. They contain a complex salt filtration system and a complex root system to cope with saltwater immersion and wave action. They are adapted to the low-oxygen conditions of waterlogged mud, but are most likely to thrive in the upper half of the intertidal zone.

The mangrove biome, often called the mangrove forest or mangal, is a distinct saline woodland or shrubland habitat characterized by depositional coastal environments, where fine sediments (often with high organic content) collect in areas protected from high-energy wave action. Mangrove forests serve as vital habitats for a diverse array of aquatic species, offering a unique ecosystem that supports the intricate interplay of marine life and terrestrial vegetation. The saline conditions tolerated by various mangrove species range from brackish water, through pure seawater (3 to 4% salinity), to water concentrated by evaporation to over twice the salinity of ocean seawater (up to 9% salinity).

Beginning in 2010, remote sensing technologies and global data have been used to assess areas, conditions and deforestation rates of mangroves around the world. In 2018, the Global Mangrove Watch Initiative released a new global baseline which estimates the total mangrove forest area of the world as of 2010 at 137,600 km2 (53,100 sq mi), spanning 118 countries and territories. A 2022 study on losses and gains of tidal wetlands estimates a 3,700 km2 (1,400 sq mi) net decrease in global mangrove extent from 1999 to 2019. Mangrove loss continues due to human activity, with a global annual deforestation rate estimated at 0.16%, and per-country rates as high as 0.70%. Degradation in quality of remaining mangroves is also an important concern.

There is interest in mangrove restoration for several reasons. Mangroves support sustainable coastal and marine ecosystems. They protect nearby areas from tsunamis and extreme weather events. Mangrove forests are also effective at carbon sequestration and storage. The success of mangrove restoration may depend heavily on engagement with local stakeholders, and on careful assessment to ensure that growing conditions will be suitable for the species chosen.

The International Day for the Conservation of the Mangrove Ecosystem is celebrated every year on 26 July.

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