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**Myco-heterotrophy Overview:**
Myco-heterotrophy involves plants relying on fungi for food.
– Full myco-heterotrophy depends entirely on fungi for nutrition.
– Partial myco-heterotrophy allows plants to photosynthesize while using fungi as supplementary food.
– Non-photosynthetic plants resort to parasitism to obtain nutrients.
– Myco-heterotrophic plants exhibit significant reductions in plastid genomes.
– Carbon flow from fungus to plant distinguishes myco-heterotrophy from mycorrhiza.

**Species Diversity of Myco-heterotrophs:**
– Myco-heterotrophs are predominantly found in flowering plants.
– Monotropes and non-photosynthetic orchids are examples of full myco-heterotrophs.
– The Gentian family includes both partial and full myco-heterotrophs.
– Certain ferns and clubmosses exhibit myco-heterotrophic stages.
– Myco-heterotrophs target mycorrhizal fungi with substantial energy reserves.

**Evolutionary Aspects of Myco-heterotrophy:**
– Myco-heterotrophs likely evolved from mycorrhizal ancestors.
– Various plant families contain myco-heterotrophic members.
– Parallel evolutions of myco-heterotrophs are suggested.
– Myco-heterotrophs have intricate relationships with different fungi.
– Some myco-heterotrophic orchids exploit saprotrophic fungi for survival.

**Unique Characteristics of Myco-heterotrophs:**
– Myco-heterotrophs may act as mycorrhizal cheaters within networks.
– Parasitaxus usta is the sole mycoheterotrophic gymnosperm.
– Some green plants exhibit partial myco-heterotrophy.
– Tropical achlorophyllous orchids recruit saprotrophic fungi as mycorrhizal partners.
– Myco-heterotrophs demonstrate a distinct mode of parasitism.

**Research and Further Reading on Myco-heterotrophy:**
– Various research papers and publications explore myco-heterotrophy in depth.
– External links provide additional resources and information on myco-heterotrophy.
– Experts in the field have contributed significantly to the study of myco-heterotrophy.

Myco-heterotrophy (Wikipedia)

Myco-heterotrophy (from Greek μύκης mykes, "fungus", ἕτερος heteros, "another", "different" and τροφή trophe, "nutrition") is a symbiotic relationship between certain kinds of plants and fungi, in which the plant gets all or part of its food from parasitism upon fungi rather than from photosynthesis. A myco-heterotroph is the parasitic plant partner in this relationship. Myco-heterotrophy is considered a kind of cheating relationship and myco-heterotrophs are sometimes informally referred to as "mycorrhizal cheaters". This relationship is sometimes referred to as mycotrophy, though this term is also used for plants that engage in mutualistic mycorrhizal relationships.

Monotropa uniflora, an obligate myco-heterotroph known to parasitize fungi belonging to the Russulaceae.
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