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**1. Drug Delivery in Nanomedicine:**
– Nanoparticles, liposomes, and dendrimers are used for drug delivery.
– Nanotechnology enables targeted delivery to specific cells, reducing side effects.
– Efficacy depends on encapsulation, successful delivery, and drug release.
– Lipid nanotechnology is crucial for developing medical nanodevices.
– Ongoing research focuses on optimizing nanoparticulate systems for targeting and distribution.

**2. Applications and Impact of Nanomedicine:**
– Commercially available nanotechnology-based drugs include Abraxane and Doxil.
– FDA-approved drugs like nanoparticle albumin bound paclitaxel have revolutionized cancer treatment.
Nanomedicine sales reached $16 billion in 2015, with significant annual R&D investments.
– Imaging techniques like Onivyde and Rapamune enhance drug functionality and visualization.
– Nanotechnology enhances sensing technologies for detecting diseases like cancer.

**3. Toxicity, Environmental Impact, and Research Funding:**
– Nanoparticles’ toxicity varies with size, shape, and material, impacting organs.
– Research focuses on antimicrobial uses, combating antibiotic resistance, and understanding nanotoxicity.
– Global funding for emerging nanotechnology is increasing, with support from the NIH.
– Environmental concerns include magnetic targeted delivery effects on tumor growth.
– Optimizing medical uses and safety is crucial for the future of nanomedicine.

**4. Advanced Applications of Nanotechnology:**
– Nanotechnology plays a significant role in vaccine development for viral diseases.
– Nanotechnology contributes to tissue engineering for repair and regeneration.
– Neuro-electronic interfacing and nanoscale enzymatic biofuel cells are developed for medical devices.
– Molecular nanotechnology explores nanorobots for cell repair and life extension.
– Nanoparticles in orthodontics, drug delivery, and biomedical research have diverse applications.

**5. Specific Nanotechnology Applications:**
– Nanoparticles in cancer treatment show efficacy in various studies.
– Nanotechnology in orthodontics demonstrates antibacterial and adhesive properties.
– Applications of nanoparticles in drug delivery include nanocrystals and core-shell silica nanoparticles.
– Biomedical research highlights RNA-triple-helix hydrogel scaffolds and nanowire sensor arrays.
– Miscellaneous applications cover personalized oncology, sepsis therapy, and novel biomedical approaches.

Nanomedicine (Wikipedia)

Nanomedicine is the medical application of nanotechnology. Nanomedicine ranges from the medical applications of nanomaterials and biological devices, to nanoelectronic biosensors, and even possible future applications of molecular nanotechnology such as biological machines. Current problems for nanomedicine involve understanding the issues related to toxicity and environmental impact of nanoscale materials (materials whose structure is on the scale of nanometers, i.e. billionths of a meter).

Functionalities can be added to nanomaterials by interfacing them with biological molecules or structures. The size of nanomaterials is similar to that of most biological molecules and structures; therefore, nanomaterials can be useful for both in vivo and in vitro biomedical research and applications. Thus far, the integration of nanomaterials with biology has led to the development of diagnostic devices, contrast agents, analytical tools, physical therapy applications, and drug delivery vehicles.

Nanomedicine seeks to deliver a valuable set of research tools and clinically useful devices in the near future. The National Nanotechnology Initiative expects new commercial applications in the pharmaceutical industry that may include advanced drug delivery systems, new therapies, and in vivo imaging. Nanomedicine research is receiving funding from the US National Institutes of Health Common Fund program, supporting four nanomedicine development centers.

Nanomedicine sales reached $16 billion in 2015, with a minimum of $3.8 billion in nanotechnology R&D being invested every year. Global funding for emerging nanotechnology increased by 45% per year in recent years, with product sales exceeding $1 trillion in 2013. As the nanomedicine industry continues to grow, it is expected to have a significant impact on the economy.

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