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Pseudomonas syringae – Wikipedia

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**1. Biology and Genetics of Pseudomonas syringae:**

– Discovered in 1961 by Paul Hoppe and further researched by Steven E. Lindow in the 1970s.
– Genomic analysis reveals P. syringae’s evolutionary position and core proteome composition.
– The bacterium’s GC content ranges from 58% to 59.3% across 34 genomes in 3 subgroups.
– Various proteins are involved, ranging from 4973 to 6026 within the P. syringae group.
– Insights into biofilm formation, ice-nucleating properties, and mechanisms of pathogenicity.

**2. Disease Cycle and Epidemiology of Pseudomonas syringae:**

– Overwinters on infected plant tissues and enters plants through stomata or wounds.
– Thrives in wet, cool conditions with optimal disease temperatures between 12–25°C.
– Spread by rain splash, seed-borne, and can live as a saprotroph in the phyllosphere.
– Some strains used as biocontrol agents, causing leaf spots, cankers, and frost damage vulnerability.
– Management strategies include spraying bactericides, copper compounds, and inducing plant resistance.

**3. Pathovars and Host Specificity of Pseudomonas syringae:**

– Pathovars target specific plant species causing distinct diseases like maple, kiwifruit, and soybean.
– Interaction between effector genes and plant resistance genes determines host specificity.
– Plants develop resistance by recognizing pathogen-associated molecular patterns.
– Some pathovars have evolved to infect specific plant hosts, impacting various crop industries.
– Efforts to study specific strains like Pst DC3000∆∆ for better understanding plant immunity.

**4. Economic Impact and Management Strategies:**

– Significant losses in industries like kiwifruit due to outbreaks like P. syringae pv. actinidiae.
– New Zealand and Italy faced substantial financial consequences, leading to removal of infected plants.
– Control methods involve chemical treatments, antibiotics, and inducing plant resistance.
– Hygiene practices, pruning, and cauterizing cankers enhance tree resistance against P. syringae.
– Importance of P. syringae in agriculture and the need for effective management strategies.

**5. Research and Publications on Pseudomonas syringae:**

– Various research references provide insights into genetic makeup, pathogenicity, and virulence factors.
– Studies on plant-pathogen interactions, mechanisms of plant immunity, and bacterial ice nucleation.
– Investigations into specific genes, plant diseases, and efforts to control storage rots and diseases.
– Research findings on DNA relatedness, ecology of ice nucleation-active bacteria, and autophagy in plant-virus interactions.
– Miscellaneous topics like bacteriophages, host specialization, and the molecular basis of diseases caused by P. syringae.

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