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**1. Botanical Information:**
– Etymology: The word “soy” originated from Cantonese or Japanese names for soy sauce.
– Classification: Genus Glycine includes subgenera Glycine and Soja, with G.max and wild soybeans in Soja.
– Description: Soybeans grow through distinct stages from seeds to mature plants.

**2. Growth and Development:**
Germination: Radicle emergence, cotyledon development, and stem growth are key stages.
Seed Resilience: Soybeans have hard, water-resistant hulls and can fix atmospheric nitrogen.
– Conditions: Soybeans thrive in hot climates, require nitrogen fixation, and prefer moist alluvial soils.

**3. Nutritional Composition:**
– Macronutrients: Raw soybeans contain sugars, dietary fiber, and fats.
Protein Quality: Soy protein is heat-stable, offers a complete profile, and has a high digestibility score.
Seed Proteins: Soybeans contain globulin storage proteins and allergenic proteins.

**4. Chemical Composition:**
– Carbohydrates: Soybeans contain sucrose, raffinose, and stachyose, contributing to flatulence.
– Fats and Other Constituents: Soybeans have fats, phytosterols, isoflavones, saponins, and phytoestrogens.

**5. Historical and Geographical Context:**
– History: Soybeans were crucial in East Asia, with evidence of domestication in China, Japan, and Korea.
– Global Spread: Soybeans were traded by European traders and introduced to various continents over centuries.
– Regional Cultivation: Soybean cultivation has historical roots in East Asia, Southeast Asia, Indian subcontinent, Iberia, and North America.

Soybean (Wikipedia)

The soybean, soy bean, or soya bean (Glycine max) is a species of legume native to East Asia, widely grown for its edible bean, which has numerous uses.

Scientific classification Edit this classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Tracheophytes
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Clade: Rosids
Order: Fabales
Family: Fabaceae
Subfamily: Faboideae
Genus: Glycine
G. max
Binomial name
Glycine max
  • Dolichos soja L.
  • Glycine angustifolia Miq.
  • Glycine gracilis Skvortsov
  • Glycine hispida (Moench) Maxim.
  • Glycine soja sensu auct.
  • Phaseolus max L.
  • Soja angustifolia Miq.
  • Soja hispida Moench
  • Soja japonica Savi
  • Soja max (L.) Piper
  • Soja soja H. Karst.
  • Soja viridis Savi
Chinese name
Literal meaning"large bean"
Southern Chinese name
Traditional Chinese黃豆
Simplified Chinese黄豆
Literal meaning"yellow bean"
Vietnamese name
Vietnamese alphabetđậu tương (or đỗ tương)
đậu nành
Chữ Hán豆漿
Chữ Nôm豆𥢃
Korean name
Hangul대두 (or 메주콩)
Japanese name
Beans in a supermarket in China
Beans for sale at a supermarket in China

Traditional unfermented food uses of soybeans include soy milk, from which tofu and tofu skin are made. Fermented soy foods include soy sauce, fermented bean paste, nattō, and tempeh. Fat-free (defatted) soybean meal is a significant and cheap source of protein for animal feeds and many packaged meals. For example, soybean products, such as textured vegetable protein (TVP), are ingredients in many meat and dairy substitutes.

Soybeans contain significant amounts of phytic acid, dietary minerals and B vitamins. Soy vegetable oil, used in food and industrial applications, is another product of processing the soybean crop. Soybean is the most important protein source for feed farm animals (that in turn yields animal protein for human consumption).

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