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**PubMed Overview:**
– Free database maintained by the United States National Library of Medicine (NLM) at the National Institutes of Health.
– Contains primarily the MEDLINE database with over 35 million citations and abstracts dating back to 1966.
– Nearly one million new records added annually.
– Offers free, private, home- and office-based MEDLINE searching.
– New interface launched in October 2009, with options to sort results by Most Recent, Best Match, Publication Date, and more.
– Accessible via handheld devices and offers a simplified version for mobile users.

**Search Features and Strategies:**
– Simple searches conducted by entering key aspects of a subject.
– Search formulations enhanced through field names, MeSH terms, synonyms, and Boolean operators.
– Optimal searches require understanding of MEDLINE and MeSH controlled vocabulary.
– Reference librarians and search specialists available for complex search strategies.
– Controlled language headings combined with free text terms ensure exhaustive search.
– Strategies for improving PubMed/MEDLINE searches and systematic literature searches.

**User Tools and Features:**
– My NCBI offers tools for saving searches, filtering results, setting up automatic updates, and configuring display formats.
– LinkOut connects users to full-text local journal holdings.
PubMed identifier (PMID) assigned to each record for easy reference.
– askMEDLINE provides a free-text, natural language query tool for MEDLINE/PubMed.
– Alternative interfaces available through platforms like Embase, Ovid, and EBSCO.

**Data Mining and Technology Advancements:**
– Programming environments like Matlab, Python, and R used for mining PubMed data.
PubMed utilized for training biomedical language models and AI development.
– Tools like MEDOC allow local mirroring of PubMed data.
– Models like PubMedGPT and BiomedCLIP-PubMedBERT demonstrate potential of PubMed data in AI.
– Various citation format generators use PMID numbers as input.

**Publication Enhancements and Additional Tools:**
– Continuous production enhancements for MEDLINE/PubMed.
– Various web-based PubMed versions exist for enhanced search experiences.
PubMed derivatives suggested for applications using PubMed data under license.
– Tools like Unpaywall Journals assist with cancellations based on open access availability.
– Additional features include PubMed Mobile Beta, PubMed Cubby, PubMed Commons, and tools like MedlineRanker and MiSearch for flexible ranking and adaptive search.

PubMed (Wikipedia)

PubMed is a free database including primarily the MEDLINE database of references and abstracts on life sciences and biomedical topics. The United States National Library of Medicine (NLM) at the National Institutes of Health maintains the database as part of the Entrez system of information retrieval.

Research centerUnited States National Library of Medicine (NLM)
Release dateJanuary 1996; 28 years ago (1996-01)

From 1971 to 1997, online access to the MEDLINE database had been primarily through institutional facilities, such as university libraries. PubMed, first released in January 1996, ushered in the era of private, free, home- and office-based MEDLINE searching. The PubMed system was offered free to the public starting in June 1997.

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