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**Botanical Information and Cultivation:**
Raspberry is an aggregate fruit from multiple carpels of a single flower.
– Raspberries are grown for fresh fruit, frozen fruit, purée, juice, and dried fruit.
– Ideal growing conditions include ample sun, water, and well-drained soil.
– Raspberries are traditionally planted as dormant canes in winter.
– They spread through basal shoots and can be invasive if not controlled.
– High tunnel bramble production allows raspberries to be grown in less hardy climates.
– Harvested when they come off the receptacle easily and are ripe.

**Nutritional Value and Phytochemicals:**
– Raspberries are low in calories, high in fiber, and a good source of vitamin C.
– They have antioxidants that provide health benefits.
– Different cultivars offer unique flavors and nutritional profiles.
– Contain phytochemicals like anthocyanin pigments and ellagic acid.
– Yellow raspberries have lower anthocyanin content.
– Both yellow and red raspberries contain carotenoids.

**Diseases, Pests, and Production:**
– Raspberries are susceptible to pests like larvae of Lepidoptera species, raspberry beetle, and raspberry fruitworm.
– Botrytis cinerea, or gray mold, is a common fungal infection in wet conditions.
– Verticillium wilt can infest raspberry crops.
– World raspberry production in 2022 was 947,852 tonnes.
– Russia led production with 22% of the world total.

**Cultivars and Varieties:**
– Modern red raspberry cultivars are often hybrids between different species.
– Black raspberries, purple raspberries, and yellow raspberries are cultivated varieties.
– Blue raspberry refers to specific cultivars or hybrids.
Raspberry cultivars can be summer-bearing or everbearing.
– Red raspberries have been crossed with other species to create hybrids like loganberry.

**Research and Studies on Raspberries:**
– Metabolomics study on flavonoid biosynthesis in red and yellow raspberries.
– Quality and chemical composition research on different raspberry genotypes.
– Comparison of carotenoid and tocopherol content in yellow and red raspberries.
– Health benefits of red raspberries, focusing on bioactive polyphenols.
Nutrient data for raspberries from the USDA Nutrient Database.

Raspberry (Wikipedia)

The raspberry is the edible fruit of a multitude of plant species in the genus Rubus of the rose family, most of which are in the subgenus Idaeobatus. The name also applies to these plants themselves. Raspberries are perennial with woody stems.

Red-fruited raspberries
European Rubus idaeus raspberry fruits on the plant

World production of raspberries in 2021 was 886,538 tonnes, led by Russia with 22% of the total. Raspberries are cultivated across northern Europe and North America and are eaten in various ways, including as whole fruit and in preserves, cakes, ice cream, and liqueurs. They are a rich source of vitamin C, manganese, and dietary fiber.

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