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**1. Rattan Overview:**
Rattan palms are climbing palms with vine-like habits.
– They do not branch and have a constant stem diameter.
– Rattans can grow up to hundreds of meters long.
– They can be solitary or clustering species.
Rattan belongs to the Arecaceae family and is native to tropical regions.
– The stems of rattan are used in furniture making.
Rattan is a durable and flexible material.

**2. Rattan Distribution and Classification:**
Rattan palms are mainly found in Southeast Asia and tropical Africa.
– The largest rattan genus is Calamus, with around 480 species.
– There are around 600 species of rattans across 13 different genera.
Rattan palms are classified as lianas due to their climbing habits.
– They can be single-stemmed or clump-forming.
– Some rattans are non-climbing, with tree-like or shrub-like habits.
– Rattans display two types of flowering: hapaxanthy and pleonanthy.

**3. Rattan Commercial and Economic Importance:**
– Around 20% of rattan palm species are economically important.
Rattan is used in making furniture, baskets, mats, and cordage.
– Most rattan products still come from wild-harvested plants.
Rattan supplies are threatened due to deforestation and overexploitation.
Rattan trade is a significant industry in Southeast Asia.
– It provides livelihoods for many communities and supports local artisans.
Rattan exports contribute to the economy and are in demand globally.

**4. Rattan Conservation and Environmental Impact:**
– Various rattan species have different conservation statuses.
– Some species are endangered, requiring conservation efforts.
– Sustainable harvesting practices can help preserve rattan resources.
– Overharvesting of rattan can lead to ecological imbalances.
Rattan plays a role in forest ecosystems and can help protect forest land.
– Conservation efforts are being made to protect rattan populations and contribute to sustainable development.

**5. Rattan Utilization and Cultural Significance:**
Rattan is used in handicrafts, basket weaving, and construction.
– It is utilized for bone implants in the medical field.
Rattan has historical and cultural significance in various societies.
Rattan artifacts are part of historical collections and are used in martial arts.
Rattan weaving techniques have been passed down through generations.

Rattan (Wikipedia)

Rattan, also spelled ratan (from Malay: rotan), is the name for roughly 600 species of Old World climbing palms belonging to subfamily Calamoideae. The greatest diversity of rattan palm species and genera are in the closed-canopy old-growth tropical forests of Southeast Asia, though they can also be found in other parts of tropical Asia and Africa. Most rattan palms are ecologically considered lianas due to their climbing habits, unlike other palm species. A few species also have tree-like or shrub-like habits.

Calamus thwaitesii in southwestern India
Juvenile Calamus oblongus subsp. mollis in a forest understory in the Philippines

Around 20% of rattan palm species are economically important and are traditionally used in Southeast Asia in producing wickerwork furniture, baskets, canes, woven mats, cordage, and other handicrafts. Rattan canes are one of the world's most valuable non-timber forest products. Some species of rattan also have edible scaly fruit and heart of palm. Despite increasing attempts in the last 30 years at commercial cultivation, almost all rattan products still come from wild-harvested plants. Rattan supplies are now rapidly threatened due to deforestation and overexploitation. Rattan were also historically known as Manila cane or Malacca cane, based on their trade origins, as well as numerous other trade names for individual species.

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