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Reference Daily Intake

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**Regulatory Changes and Compliance Deadlines**:
– FDA final rule in 2016 for changes to nutrition facts panel
– New daily values published in the Federal Register
– Compliance deadline extended to January 1, 2020, based on annual food sales
– FDA enforcement actions on new Nutrition Facts label requirements
– FDA cooperation with manufacturers post-compliance date

**Labeling Requirements and Nutrient Listing**:
– Mandatory listing of various nutrients on food labels
– Display of contents and %DVs of certain nutrients
– Similarities between Nutrition Facts label and Supplement Facts label requirements
– DVs based on a caloric intake of 2000 kcal for adults and children

**Minerals and Dietary Reference Intake**:
– RDI derived from RDAs developed during World War II
– Establishment and revision of RDAs by the U.S. National Academy of Sciences
– FDA regulations introduced in 1973 for nutrition labels format
– Introduction of the RDI as the basis for new daily values in 1993

**FDA Regulations Update and Daily Values**:
– Introduction of the Dietary Reference Intake in 1997
– FDA update on regulations in 2016 to reflect current scientific information
– Changes to Daily Values based on the 1968 RDAs
– Emphasis on nutrients of current concern like vitamin D and potassium

**Sodium and Potassium Recommendations**:
– U.S. Institute of Medicine’s recommendations on salt consumption
– Average American adult’s sodium intake exceeding recommended levels
– Recommended daily sodium intake levels by various institutions
– UK’s daily salt allowance and recommendations for sodium intake

In the U.S. and Canada, the Reference Daily Intake (RDI) is used in nutrition labeling on food and dietary supplement products to indicate the daily intake level of a nutrient that is considered to be sufficient to meet the requirements of 97–98% of healthy individuals in every demographic in the United States. While developed for the US population, it has been adopted by other countries, such as Canada.

The RDI is used to determine the Daily Value (DV) of foods, which is printed on nutrition facts labels (as %DV) in the United States and Canada, and is regulated by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and by Health Canada, respectively. The labels "high", "rich in", or "excellent source of" may be used for a food if it contains 20% or more of the DV. The labels "good source", "contains", or "provides" may be used on a food if it contains between 10% and 20% of the DV, and "low source" applies if the %DV is 5% or lower.

The Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) were a set of nutrition recommendations that evolved into both the Dietary Reference Intake (DRI) system of nutrition recommendations (which still defines RDA values) and the RDIs used for food labeling. The first regulations governing U.S. nutrition labels specified a % U.S. RDA declaration based on the current RDA values, which had been published in 1968. Later, the % U.S. RDA was renamed the %DV and the RDA values that the %DVs were based on became the RDIs.

The RDAs (and later the RDA values within the DRI) were regularly revised to reflect the latest scientific information, but although the nutrition labeling regulations were occasionally updated, the existing RDI values were not changed, so that until 2016, many of the DVs used on nutrition facts labels were still based on the outdated RDAs from 1968. In 2016, the Food and Drug Administration published changes to the regulations including updated RDIs and DVs based primarily on the RDAs in the current DRI.

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