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Dietary Reference Intake

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**Dietary Reference Intake Framework**:
– Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) components:
– Estimated Average Requirements (EAR)
– Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA)
– Adequate Intake (AI)
– Tolerable Upper Intake Levels (UL)
– Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Ranges (AMDR)
– Usage of DRIs in the United States and Canada:
– Diet composition
– New food and supplement development
– Healthcare policy
– Public health guidance
– International variations:
– European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) uses Dietary Reference Values
– Australia and New Zealand reference Nutrient Reference Values
– Similar definitions to the US and Canada with varying numerical values

**Historical Development**:
– RDA development during World War II
– Revision by the Food and Nutrition Board every 5-10 years
– Introduction of DRIs in 1997 to expand the system
– Publication of DRIs from 1998 to 2001
– Recent updates including new DRIs for specific nutrients

**Current Recommendations**:
– Tailored nutrient requirements for different demographics
– Specific recommendations for various nutrients
– Establishment of EARs, RDAs, AIs, and ULs
– Absence of EARs or ULs for some nutrients
– Guidelines on substances to avoid in food or supplements

**Macronutrient Guidelines**:
– RDA/AI for males and females aged 19-50 years
– Inclusion of water, trans fatty acids, saturated fatty acids, and added sugar
– Top sources for common macronutrients
– Recommendations on intakes and sources
– Details on Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range (AMDR)

**Research and Adherence**:
– Standard of evidence for DRIs development
– Call for higher evidence standards for dietary recommendations
– Adherence rates in the US population to EAR and healthy eating patterns
– Challenges in meeting recommended intakes for nutrients
– References and external links for additional information on DRIs and nutrition.

The Dietary Reference Intake (DRI) is a system of nutrition recommendations from the National Academy of Medicine (NAM) of the National Academies (United States). It was introduced in 1997 in order to broaden the existing guidelines known as Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs, see below). The DRI values differ from those used in nutrition labeling on food and dietary supplement products in the U.S. and Canada, which uses Reference Daily Intakes (RDIs) and Daily Values (%DV) which were based on outdated RDAs from 1968 but were updated as of 2016.

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