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**1. Historical Influences:**
– Jeremy Bentham (1748–1832) advocated for sentiocentrism.
J. Howard Moore in ‘Better World Philosophy’ supported sentiocentrism.
– Other philosophers like Peter Singer, Tom Regan, Charles R. Magel, Steven M. Wise, John Zephaniah Holwell, Karl Christian Friedrich Krause, and Arthur Helps have discussed or influenced sentiocentrism.

**2. Concept of Sentiocentrism:**
Sentiocentrism states that sentience is essential to belong to the moral community.
– Non-human organisms are morally significant in their own right.
– Sentient beings have subjective experiences, including self-awareness and the ability to feel pain.
Sentiocentrism is seen as a modification of traditional ethics concerning sentient animals.
– It emphasizes that moral concern should extend to all sentient beings.

**3. Justification and Implications:**
Peter Singer argues that the capacity to suffer is crucial for having interests.
– Utilitarian philosophers like Singer advocate for the wellbeing of all sentient beings.
– Singer criticizes speciesism, comparing it to racism and sexism.
Sentiocentrism challenges traditional ethics by focusing on sentience.
– It raises questions about the moral consideration of different species.
Sentiocentrism influences debates on animal rights and welfare.
– The concept of sentiocentrism has implications for various ethical dilemmas.
– It highlights the interconnectedness of all sentient beings in ethical considerations.

**4. Gradualism and Law Justifications:**
– The nervous complexity in animals varies, with neurons being a necessary condition for sentience.
– Gradualist sentiocentrism suggests that complex interests deserve more consideration.
– It argues for prioritizing the best interests of complex organisms over less complex ones.
– Gradualism extends to human issues like abortion, considering the level of sentience.
– Justifications under the law vary, with psycho-social justifications considered valid for aborting fetuses with little sentience and medical necessity often required to justify killing fetuses with higher sentience.

**5. References, Critiques, and Advocates:**
– References on sentiocentrism include works by Ned Hettinger, Walter F. Baber, Robert V. Bartlett, D.S. Mills, Jeremy N. Marchant-Forde, and John Howard Moore.
– Critiques and debates involve Tom Regan, Mary Anne Warren, László Erdős, Marc Bekoff, and David Konisky.
Animal rights advocates in the context of sentiocentrism include Carol J. Adams, Aysha Akhtar, Kristin Andrews, Tom Beauchamp, and Marc Bekoff.

Sentiocentrism (Wikipedia)

Sentiocentrism, sentio-centrism, or sentientism is an ethical view that places sentient individuals at the center of moral concern. Both humans and other sentient individuals have rights and/or interests that must be considered.

Sentiocentrists consider discrimination between sentient beings of different species to be speciesism, an arbitrary discrimination. Coherent sentiocentrist belief respects all sentient beings. Many self-described humanists see themselves as "sentientists" where the term humanism contrasts with theism and does not describe the sole focus of humanist concerns. Sentiocentrism stands in opposition to the philosophy of anthropocentrism.

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